Bio Final

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  1. Connects bones to bones
  2. Connects muscles to bones
  3. Name the involuntary muscle of internal organs
    smooth muscle
  4. Name for involuntary, striated, heart muscle
    Cardiac Muscle
  5. Name for voluntary, striated muscle
    Skeletal Muscle
  6. Organ that compacts digestive wastes and reabsorbs water
    large int.
  7. Organ that churs food and adds enzymes
  8. Organ that finishes digestion and absorbs the nutrients
    Small int.
  9. increases the intestine's surface area for absorption- tiny 'fuzzy things"
  10. Makes bile, stores sugar, makes urea
  11. Makes enzymes for the small int. ( but food never goes into it)
  12. Stores bile and releases it
    gall bladder
  13. Takes food from mouth to stomach
  14. Valve to keep food from going backwards in digestive system
  15. Waves of smooth muscle contraction that push food along the digestion sys.
  16. Blood cell that causes clotting
  17. Blood cell that defends against disease
  18. Blood cell that carries oxygen and carbon dioxide
  19. protective sac around the heart
  20. Organ that filters out damaged and worn out blood cells
  21. Heart chamber that gets blood from the body
    R atrium
  22. Heart chamber that gets blood from the lungs
    L atrium
  23. Heart chamber that pumps blood into the lungs
    R ventricle
  24. heart chamber that pumps blood to the lower body
    L ventricle
  25. Largest artery that goes to entire lower body
  26. Largest vein that comes up the entire lower body
  27. Second largest vein that comes down from the entire body
  28. Voice box that has vocal cords inside it
  29. Carries urine from kidney to urinary bladder
  30. Spindle fibers appear
  31. New cell wall or cell membrane froms
  32. Chromosomes line up at the cell's center
  33. Short chromosomes become long, stringy chromatin
  34. Chromosomes are pulled into two seprate groups
  35. DNA makes a copy of itself
  36. Spindle fibers disappear
  37. Long, stringy chromatin becomes short chromosomes
  38. Carries code from DNA to the ribosomes- ribosomes "read it"
  39. Any molecules that is a long chain of amino acids
  40. Master blueprint- makes all of the RNA of the cell
  41. Picks up amino acids and puts them into place in a protein
  42. Molecule that ribosomes are made out of
  43. Protein that causes or controls the reactions in a living thing
  44. List the 8 systems found in a human or a mink
    • Sketetal
    • Circulatory
    • Excretory
    • Muscular
    • Digestive
    • Respiratory
    • Nervous
    • Reproductive
  45. List three functions of the skeletal or muscular system
    • Movement
    • Form/Shape
    • Store/Release Minerals
  46. List three different kinds of muscle found in the body
    • Skeletal
    • Cardiac
    • Smooth
  47. The most common kind of muscle has a very reconizable appearance under the microscope. Describe it
    Skelatal muscle is straited (striped)
  48. Name three digestive organisms that food never goes into or through
    • liver
    • gall bladder
    • pancreas
  49. peristalsis
    waves of smooth muscle contraction that push food along the digestive sys.
  50. Where do you find villi? What do they do?
    • Villi are inside the small int.
    • They absorb food into the blood and gives the small int. a huge surface area
  51. Name three functions of the circulatory system
    • transport
    • regulate
    • protect
  52. What happends in the alveoli?
    gas exchange
  53. What does your body do with the oxygen that is carried to every cell?
    for aerobic respiration
  54. excretion
    removing waste made by the cells
  55. metabolism
    all the reactions happening in the cells
  56. homeostasis
    a balence of the internal enviorment of an organism
  57. What is the name of the major organ of the excretory system?
  58. Why is the large intestine NOT a true excretory organ?
    the waste (feces) in the large int. never went to the cells and came back again
  59. Name three functions of the brain and nervous system
    • coordinate
    • respond
    • sense
  60. What is the largest part of the brain?
  61. Second largest part of the brain?
  62. Meninges
    surrounds and covers the brain
  63. Pericardium
    surrounds and covers the heart
  64. Mesentary
    holds the intestines in place
  65. Reduces friction inside the body wall and outside of the stomach, intestines, ect.
  66. beginning of the universe
    14-15 billion
  67. formation of earth and solar system
    4.6 billion
  68. appearence of first living thing ( cell)
    3.5 billion
  69. time of the dinosaurs
    225-65 billion
  70. appearence of modern humans
  71. 4 kinds of evolution and defonitions
    • micro- small changes in living things over a short period of time
    • macro- big changes in living things that happen over long period of time
    • chemical- changes in molecules to eventually form life
    • cosmic- changes in the universe to produce atoms, stars, galaxies ect.
  72. Example of microevolution
    peppered moths
  73. Example of macro evolution
    Dinos to everyday mammels
  74. 5 parts of the theory of natural selection
    • overpopulation
    • variation
    • competition
    • survival of the fittest
    • reproduction of survivors
  75. What is the job of NADP?
    it stores and releases hydrogen
  76. Reaction of photosynthesis
    light+Co2+H2O --> glucose +oxygen
  77. What is the job of ATP?
    Stores and releases energy
  78. A
  79. T
  80. G
  81. C
  82. How are mitosis and protein synthesis related?
    • 1. Mitosis makes cells with DNA, so they can do protein synthesis
    • 2. protein synthesis may cause a cell to grow so much that mitosis becomes nessary
  83. What purposes does your body do mitosis for?
    growth and replacement
  84. What makes one protein different from another?
    • 1. the order
    • 2. the amount
    • 3. the combo
    • 4. all of the above
  85. Mendel's laws
    • 1. genes must work in pairs
    • 2. egg/ sperm get one gene per pair
    • 3. dominate genes cover recessive ones
    • 4. genes for one trait does NOT affect ratios for other traits
  86. What are the 4 characteristics that makes mitosis differnent from meiosis?
    • makes 2 cells
    • that are diploid
    • that are daughter cells
    • that are identical
  87. What are the 4 characteristics that makes meiosis differnent from mitosis?
    • makes 4 cells
    • that are non identical
    • that are monoploid
    • that are gamates
  88. Who developed the modern classification system for living things?
  89. What was the title of Linneaus's book and when was it published?
    Natural Systems, 1735
  90. List the 5 kindoms
    Animal, Plant, Fungi, Protista, Monera
  91. What language is used for scientific names and why?
    Latin, its a dead language and not ever changing
  92. Why are scientific names used?
    • Show relationships
    • avoid confusion-having universal names
  93. name 5 organisms that have a scientific name that is als a common name?
    alligator, bison, octopus, rhinoceros, boa
  94. How does an evolutionist use scientific names?
    to show what evolved from what and how long ago
  95. How does a creationist use scientific names?
    show that God created in an organized way
  96. Who is the father of genetics?
    gregor mendal
  97. Who developed the therory fro natural selection?
    Charles Darwin
  98. photosynthesis
    process in which a plant uses light to make glucose
  99. respiration
    process in which the plant uses glucose for energy
  100. fermentation
    type of anarobic respiration that makes the waste ethanol
  101. glycolysis
    animal muscles that aren't getting enough energy
  102. aerobic
    getting energy out of glucose by ADDING OXYGEN
  103. anaerobic
    getting energy out of glucose WITHOUT OXYGEN
  104. autotroph
    organism that can make food
  105. heterotroph
    organism that cannot make its own food
  106. herbivore
    organism that eats plants
  107. carnivore
    organism that eats meat
  108. decomposer
    organism that causes decay
  109. transcription
    DNA making RNA
  110. translation
    RNA makes proteins
  111. replication
    DNA making DNA
  112. double helix
    shpe of DNA
  113. chromosome
    basic unit of DNA
  114. gene
    piece of chromosome that controls a single trait
  115. fertilization
    egg and sperm combine to make offspring
  116. phenotype
    the way a trait looks
  117. genotype
    list of genes in an organism
  118. pure
    2 genes in a pair that are the same
  119. hybrid
    2 genes in a pair that are different
  120. dominant
    gene that covers up another gene in a pair
  121. recessive
    gene that gets covered up by another gene in a pair
  122. Punnett square
    method of finding outcome of offspring
  123. diploid
    norml # of chromosomes
  124. monoploid
    1/2 the normal # fo chromosomes
  125. Human Genome Project
    list of all ATCG's that are in a human cell
  126. totipotent
    cell htat has the ability to make a whole organism
  127. cloning
    making a new organism from an existing one
  128. karyotype
    picture of all chromosomes from one nucleus cronged in order
  129. stem cell
    cells that can become any cell or tissue in the body
  130. transgenic organim
    organism with gene(s) from different species
  131. Australopithecus
    earliest known hominid species
  132. Olduvai Gorge
    place where Lucy was found
  133. Galapagos Islands
    place where Charles Darwin studied
  134. On the Orgin of Species
    title of Charles Darwin's book
  135. Big Bang
    current scientific explanation of the begining of the universe
  136. primate
    the order of mammels that includes lemers, monkeys, apes, and humans
  137. hominid
    family of primaes that only include humans
  138. taxonomy
    science of classifying using a set of characteristics
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Bio Final
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