1. What is the knee supported and maintained by?
    mm. and ligaments, lacks bony structure
  2. What are the 3 joints of the knee?
    • patellofemoral
    • tibiofemoral
    • superior tibiofibular
  3. What are the articulations of the patellofemoral jt?
    patella articulates with patellar surface of femur
  4. What are some characteristics of the patellofemoral jt?
    • increases mechanical advantage of quads
    • protects knee jt
  5. What are some common Dx of the patellofemoral jt?
    • patellofemoral syndrome
    • patellar chondromalacia
    • patellar tracking dysfunction
  6. What is the true knee jt, and what type of jt is it?

    • synovial, uniaxial, hinge
    • largest jt in body

    condyles of femur articulate with superior tibia
  7. What type of jt is the superior tibiofibular jt?
    syndesmosis, ligamentous
  8. What side of the body is the tibia on?
    medial side
  9. What is the enlarges proximal end of the tibia, and includes condyles and eminence?
    tibial plateau
  10. What is the intercondyler eminence of the tibia?
    • double hilled ridge down center of plateau (top of tibia)
    • prominent ridge on proximal/superior tibia
  11. What is the tibial tuberosity and what condition is seen here?
    lg projection on proximal tibia

    Osgood-Schlatter - young boys/girls (11-15) get pain and swelling at TT (aka jumpers knee)...happens during growth spurts
  12. What runs the anterior length of the tibia (skinny part that sticks out)?
  13. Which bone bears all the weight of the LE?
    tibia...fibula is NWB
  14. What is the fibular head the attachment for?
    biceps femoris (HS group)
  15. What is the superior portion of the patella?
  16. What is the inferior portion of the patella?
  17. What is the attachment for the gastrocnemius m?

    most posterior tarsal bone, heel
  18. What are some characteristics of the cruciate ligaments?
    • located within the jt capsule
    • cross each other
    • provide stability in the sagittal plane
  19. What ligament runs from the anterior tibia to the posterior femur and prevents ant. tibial displacement?
    anterior cruciate ligament

    (ant. tibial intercondylar area to post. lateral condyle of femur)

    • runs superior and posterior
    • tight during extension
    • injured by plant and twist
  20. What ligament runs from the post. tibia to ant. femur and prevents posterior displacement of the tibia?
    posterior cruciate ligament

    • (post. intercondylar area to ant. medial condyle of femur)
    • runs superior and anterior
    • tight during flexion
  21. In what plane do the collateral ligaments give stability?
    frontal plane
  22. When are the collateral ligaments tight?
    during extension
  23. Where is the medial collateral lig?
    tibial collateral

    • attaches to medial condyles of femur and tibia and to medial meniscus
    • broad and flat
  24. Where is the lateral collateral lig?
    fibular collateral

    • attaches to lateral condyle of femur and runs down to the head of the fibula
    • no attachment to menisci
    • strong, seldom injured
    • round, cord-like
  25. What is the common tendon for the quads, and attaches to the tibial tuberosity?
    patellar tendon/lig
  26. Where are the menisci located?
    fibrocartilagnous discs on the superior surface of tibia

    • used for shock absorption
    • deepens jt surface
    • thicker laterally
  27. Which menisci is torn more frequently?
    • medial meniscus
    • attachment to medial collateral lig
  28. What are the 2 menisci of the knee?
    medial and lateral
  29. How many bursae are in the knee?
    13 - many tendons have a vertical line of pull against bony areas
  30. What is the unholy triad (unhappy triad)?
    tear of ACL, MCL, and medial meniscus
  31. What is the order of the pes anserine mm. anterior to medial?
    sartorius, gracilis, semitendinosus

    all share insertion and cross knee posteriorly and medially
  32. What arises from the tendon of the adductor magnus?
    VMO (vastus medialis oblique)
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