Ch. 1

  1. Frontal Section
    Divides the body into front and back halves

    a.k.a. coronal section
  2. Sagittal section
    Any cut that divides the body into left and right portions
  3. Anterior
    frontal surface of the body

    a.k.a. ventral for humans
  4. Posterior
    Towards the rear
  5. Rostral
    Towards the head
  6. Peripheral
    Away from the center
  7. Superficial
    Confined to the surface
  8. Deep
    Further from the surface
  9. Distal
    Away from the midline
  10. Medial
    Towards the midline
  11. Prone
    on the belly; body is horizontal with face down
  12. Supine
    On the back; body is in horizontal position with face up
  13. Lateral
    Towards the side
  14. Proximal
    Nearest the point of attachment
  15. Flextion
    bending at the joint, usually toward the ventral surface; pulling two ends closer together
  16. Extension/Hyperextension
    Pulling two ends farther apart

    Hyperextension: extreme extention
  17. Dorsiflexion
    Flextion that brings dorsal surfaces to closer proximity
  18. Plantar
    Pertaining to the sole of the foot
  19. Plantar Grasp Reflex
    Grabbing things with your toes
  20. Plantar Flexion
    Rising on your toes
  21. Inversion
    Turning the sole of your foot (or other parts) inward
  22. Eversion
    Turning the sole of your foot (or anything else) outward
  23. Palmar
    Pertaining to the palm of the hand
  24. Pronate
    To place in the prone position
  25. ipsi
    prefix; means same

    ex: ipsilateral = same side
  26. Anatomy
    The study of the structure of an organism
  27. Physiology
    The study of the function of the iving organism and its parts
  28. Applied anatomy
    a.k.a. clinical anatomy

    Anatomical study for the diagnosis and treatment of disease
  29. Gross Anatomy
    Study of the body and its parts as visible without the aid of microscopy
  30. Microscopic Anatomy
    Study of the body and its parts as visible without the aid of microscopy
  31. Surface Anatomy
    Study of the body and its structures as markings as related to underlying structures
  32. Developmental Anatomy
    Study of anatomy with reference to growth and development from conception to childhood
  33. Pathological Anatomy
    Study of the parts if the body with respect to the pathological entity (disease)
  34. Comparative Anatomy
    Study of the homologous structures of different animals
  35. Respiratory Physiology
    The study of the function of respiration
  36. Cytology
    Examines the structure and function of cells
  37. Histology
    Microscopic study of cells and tissues
  38. Osteology
    The study of structure and function of bones
  39. Myology
    Examines muscle form and function
  40. Angiology
    The study of blood vessels and the lymphatic system
  41. Neurology
    The study of the nervous system
  42. Thorax
    Chest region
  43. Trunk/Torso
    Combination of thorax and abdomen
  44. Dorsal Trunk
    Your back
  45. Caput
    Your head
  46. Cranial Portion
    Part of the skull that houses the brain and its components
  47. Facial Part
    Portion of the skull that houses the mouth, pharynx, nasal cavity, and structures related to the upper airway and mastication (chewing)
  48. Upper Extremity
  49. Lower Extremity
  50. Axial Skeleton
    The head and trunk, with the spinal column being the axis
  51. Appendicular Skeleton
    Includes the upper and lower limbs
  52. Neuraxis
    Axis of the brain
  53. Squamous (pavement) Epithelium
    Single layer of flat cells; linings of blood vessels, heart, alveoli, and lymphatic vessels

    Simple Epithelium
  54. Cuboidal (cubical) Epithelium
    Cube-shaped; secretory function in some glands, such as thyroid

    Simple Epithelium
  55. Columnar Epithelium
    Single layer, cylindrical cells; inner lining for stomach, intestines, gall bladder, bile ducts

    Simple Epithelium
  56. Ciliated Epithelium
    Cylindrical cells with cilia; lining of nasal cavity, larynx, trachea, bronchi

    Simple Epithelium
  57. Stratified Epithelium
    Flattened cells on a bed of columnar cells; epidermis of skin, lining of mouth, pharynx, esophagus; conjuctiva

    Compound Epithelium
  58. Transitional Epithelium
    Pear-shaped cells; lining of bladder, etc.
  59. Basement Membrane (baseplate)
    Made predominantly of collegen; underlies Epithelial tissues; serves stabilizing and other functions, including joining epithelial and connective tissues
  60. Areolar
    Elastic; supports organs, between muscles

    Connective tissue
  61. Adipose
    Cells with fat globules; between muscles and organs

    Connective tissue
  62. White Fibrous
    Strong, closely packed; ligaments binding bones; periosteum covering bone; convering of organs; fascia over muscle

    Connective tissue
  63. Yellow Elastic
    Elastic; in areas requiring recoil, such as trachea, cartilage, bronchi, lungs

    Connective tissue
  64. Lymphoid
    Lymphcytes; make up lymphoid tissue of tonsils, adenoids, lymphatic nodes

    Connective tissue
  65. Cartilage
    Firm and flexible Connective tissue
  66. Hyaline Cartilage
    Bluish white and smooth; found on articulating surfaces of bones, costal cartilage of ribs, larynx, trachea, and bronchial passageway

    Connective tissue
  67. Fibrocartilage
    Dense, white, flexible fibers; intervertabral disks, between surfaces of knee joints

    Connective tissue
  68. Yellow Cartilage
    Firm, elastic; pinna, epiglottis

    Connective tissue
  69. Blood
    Corpuscles (cells: red, white), platelets, blood plasma

    Connective tissue
  70. Bone
    Hard connective tissue
  71. Compact bone
    Has haversian canal, lamellar structure
  72. Cancellous (spongy) Bone
    Spongy appearance, large haversian canal, red bone marrow producing red and white blood cells and plasma
  73. Striated Muscle
    skeletal, voluntary
  74. Smooth Muscle
    Muscle of internal organs, involuntary
  75. Cardiac Muscle
    Combination of striated and smooth, involuntary
  76. Neurons
    Transfer information; communicating tissue

    nervous tissue
  77. Glial Cells
    Nutrient transfer; blood-brain barrier

    nervous tissue
  78. Fascia
    surrounds organs; sheetlike membrane, can be dense or filmy
  79. Perimysium
    fascia that surrounds striated muscle; muscle cannot be seen through it
  80. Visceral Ligaments
    bind organs together or hold structures in place
  81. Skeletal Ligaments
    bind bone to bone
  82. Tendons
    Attach bone to cartilage
  83. Aponeurosis
    sheetlike tendon; much denser than fascia
  84. Fibroblasts
    cells that facilitate bone repair; located in the inner layer of the periosteum
  85. Diarthrodial Joints
    high mobility; synovial joints (contain synovial fluid)
  86. Amphiarthrodial Joints
    limited mobility; cartilaginous joints
  87. Synarthrodial Joints
    no mobility; fibrous joints
  88. Syndesmosis
    banded by ligament

    fibrous joint
  89. Suture
    skulll bone union

    fibrous joint
  90. Gomphosis
    tooth in alveolus

    fibrous joint
  91. Synchondrosis
    cartilage that ossifies through aging

    Cartilaginous joints
  92. Symphysis
    Bone connected by fibrocartilage
  93. Plant Joint
    gliding point, arthrodia; shallow or flat surfaces

    Synovial Joint
  94. Spheroid

    Synovial Joint
  95. Ellipsoid Joint
    "football" shaped ball-and-socket joint

    Synovial Joint
  96. Trochoid Joint
    • (pivot)
    • Synovial Joint
  97. Ginglymus Joint
    Hinge; Synovial Joint
  98. Agonist
    Muscle contracted for purpose of a specific motor act
  99. Antagonist
    Muscle that opposes that contraction of another muscle (the agonist)
  100. Synergist
    Muscle that stabilizes structures
  101. Innervation
    Stimulation by means of a nerve
  102. Afferent
    Sensory innervation
  103. Efferent
    Excitory innervation
  104. Motor Unit
    One efferent nerve fiber and the muscle fibers to which it attaches
Card Set
Ch. 1
Flashcards for Chapter 1 of Anatomy and Physiology for Speech, Language, and Hearing, 4th Edition