Urinary System

  1. Urinary system
  2. To maintain homeostatis within the internal environment of the body.
  3. Urinary System FUNCTIONS

    Water Balance

    Electrolyte balance

    Conservation of importan nutrients

    • Control of blood cell formation
    • - Erythropoietin

    • Regulation of blood pressure
    • - Renin
  4. Kidneys External Structure
    Located at back of abdominal cavity (RETROPERITONEAL)

    Between T12- L3

    RIGHT KIDNEY lower than left kidney (Due to liver)

    Fat and ribs help protect kidneys

    Renal fascia & fat anchors kidneys to back wall ((Perpendicular to aorta & ureter))
  5. Internal Functional unit of kidney
  6. Internal Structure of kidney

  7. Cortex
    OUter layer of kidney

    • - Renal Comumns in STRIPS
  8. Medulla
    Inner layer of kidney

    - Contain PYRAMiDS (6-18 per kidney)

    -Filled with tubules
  9. Tubules w/ in pyramids drain urine into
    • Minor calyx then to
    • Major calyx
  10. Ureters begn w horn like region called
    Renal pelvis
  11. Kidneys order
    • Kidneys
    • Pelvis
    • Ureters
    • Urinary Bladder

  12. Ureters
    ~12 inches long

    Descends to urinary bladder ((POSTERIOR))

    Moves urine by peristalsis

    Transitional Epithilium

    • Enters slit like opnening
    • - Membrane covered
    • - Contraction closes opening to prevent backflow into ureter.
  13. Kidney Stones
    Casts solidify to form stones

    Ex. Salts and minerals
  14. Trigone
    Triangular region between 3 openings

    -Primary site for UTI's
  15. Urinary Badder
    Directly behind pubic bone

    3 smooth muscles= DETRUSOR MUSCLE

    • Collapsible bag
    • -Usually holds 2 cups , up to 4

    Trigone= Triangular region between 3 openings
  16. Urethra

    2 urethral sphincters
    Internal urethral sphncter

    External urethral sphincter
  17. Internal urethral sphincter
    Smoot muscle under INVOLUNTARY control
  18. External Urethral Sphincter
    Skeletal muscle under VOLUNTARY control

    Urogenital diahragm
  19. Male urethra
    ~7-8 inches

    3 regions
  20. Female Urethra
    ~1-1/2 Inches

    Most likely to get Cystitis (UTI)
  21. Micturition (Urination)
    1/2 full -> stretch receptors acrivated

    Sensory neurons stimualated

    REflex Arc to spinal cord TELLS ->

    Detrusor contracts & INTERNAL urethral sphincter relaxes

    Urge to void

    EXTERNAL urethral sphincter will either contract or relax
  22. Vascularization
    RENAL ARTERY- Supplies oxygentaed blood to kidney

    It loops throgh the kidney until it reached a capillary "BOW" called the GLOMERULS.
  23. Glomerulus
    Filtration site for blood

    Composed of almost 50 loops of FENESTRATED capillaries.

    Fltrate noves into tubule system called the nephron.
  24. Nephron
    Functional unit of kidney
  25. Nephron Functions
    ~ 1 million per kidney

    • Three functions w blood:
    • -Filtrate
    • - Re-absorption
    • - Secretion

    Two types:

    • -Cortical Nephron 85%
    • - Juxtamedullary nephron 15%
  26. Renal Corpuscle
    site for filtration

    Located in cortex

    ~45 gallons of fluid passes DAILY

  27. NEPHRON is resposible
    for making urine
  28. Renal Tubules
    Site for REABSORPTION and SECRETION into blood.

    Distal convoluted tubule folds back renal corpuscle

    DCT and Arterioles leading to glomerulus
  29. Nephron Order
    • Proximal convoluted tube
    • Loop of henley
    • Distal convoluted tubule
    • Collecting Tubule
    • Collecting Duct
  30. JG Juxtaglomerular aparatus
    Secretes RENIN tp elevate blood pressure

    Secretes ERYTHROPOIETIN to stimulate RBC formation.
Card Set
Urinary System
Urinary U 4