Microbiology midterm unit 3

  1. The stage of a disease in which a person shows initial, general signs of illness.
    • A. Peroid of Incubation
    • B. Period of decline
    • C. Period of prodromal symptoms
    • D. Peroid of convelescence
    • E. Period of Acme
  2. The time your infection til the time you show symptoms.
    Period of incubation
  3. Specific symptoms for that specific disease.
    Period of acme
  4. A way your body gets rid of it, deposes the organisms.
    Period of decline
  5. Recovery from infection
    Period of convalescence
  6. A disease passed through a contaminated water supply
    Direct Contact
  7. A disease passed through kids playing with other toys.
    Indirect contact
  8. A disease passed through sneezing & coughing
  9. A disease passsed through the stomach bug.
    Oral-fecal transmission
  10. A indirect disease passed through the air.
    airborne transmission
  11. A indirect disease passed through an object that passes the infection/disease.
  12. A indirect disease passed through one area.
    • Common Vehicle Transmission
    • (such as a car or resturant)
  13. A indirect disease passed through an insect, insect covers it just on skin/body.
    Mechanical Vector
  14. A indirect disease passed through an insect itself is infected and bites.
    Biological Vector
  15. What type of diesase has a with rapid onset & is short lived?
  16. What type of disease is longer than 6 months?
  17. What type of disease is the first onset to come apon a person?
    Primary infection
  18. What type of disease do you get from the primary infection?
    Secondary disease
  19. What type of diease is in one region of the body?
    Local disease
  20. What type of disease is system wide out, in your blood stream?
    Systemic disease
  21. A disease you might catch or is transmitted by drinking pond water (not caught from another host) is called a _______________ disease.
    • A. Passive
    • B. Chronic
    • C. Non-communicable (get from enviorment)
    • D. Communicable
    • E. Pathogenic
  22. A disease you pass from host to host.
  23. A disease that is easily passed from host to host.
  24. A disease that does the worse damage to your body
  25. A disease that's base on how easy it is to get into your body.
  26. How does a disease get in, route into your body?
    Portal if entry
  27. How does a disease leave your body?
    Portal of exit.
  28. The normal habitat/source of the organism is called the ______________________ .
  29. How many people came out with this disease/got this disease?
  30. What % of the population that was effected?

    ______of aids this year.
  31. What type of diease is always happening, reacurring constantly somewhere like colds or chicken pox?
  32. Based on whats normal, this disease is much more than normal, such as rabies are in the U.S.?
  33. What is a disease that is world wide that covers a wide geographic area.
  34. What type of people are more likely to get an infection? Immune system is not working properly.
  35. What is it called when a person is infected but there is no symptoms.
    Latent infection

    (people with aids most commonly have this)
  36. In a normal enviroment this disease is okay to live in but once it moves somewhere else in your body it is harmful.
    E. Coli is okay in your intestines but once its in your urinary tract its harmful.
    Opportunistic pathogens
  37. Organisms taken away at the expense of another organism.
  38. A ____________ is a disease that causes infection.
  39. What is it called when toxins are in your blood, usually from bacteria in blood?
  40. Lowers the viscosity (thickness) of pus, allowing the bacteria to move around easier.
  41. Dissolves collagen, as the walls collapse the blood supply is lost and the tissues die-gas gangrene. Bacteria is Clostriduim perfringens

    (the tissues die and now Clostriduim perfringens is living in it which spreads death to living tissue skin tissue.)
  42. Dissolves hyaluronic acid which is a tissuse cement holding the cells & tissues together. Penetrates deep into the tissue.
  43. Dissolves blood clotting, once your body has clotted off a wound, some bacteria can dissolve the clot, thus penetrating into the surrounding tiessue.
  44. Causes clotting in blood, allows the bacteria to "wall themselves off" from your bodies immune system.
  45. What destroys white blood cells?
  46. What causes damage or destruction to red blood cells, produced by wide variety of bacteria?
  47. The multiplication of bacteria in the blood is called ___________________ .
    • A. Fungemia
    • B. Virimia
    • C. Bacterimia
    • D. Septicimia
    • E. Virulence
  48. Actual growth of bacteria in the blood is called________?
  49. Funus in the blood is called_______?
  50. Viruses in the blood is called________?
  51. Paasites in the blood is called___________?
  52. What like to grow in burn patients?
    • A. Escherichia coli
    • B. Micrococcus species
    • C. Pseudomonas
    • D. Staphylococcus aureus
  53. This infection is most common in patients with hospital acquired pneumonia & surgical site infections. Many are resident to common antibiotics.
    • Staphyloccus aureus
    • (likes to stick to sutures more and someone else that doesnt, not sure why)
  54. Common intestinal bacteria bacteria commonly causes UTI
    Entercococcus species
  55. Common intestinal bacteria causing UTI
    Escherichia coli
  56. When one organism benefits at the expense of the host, the relationship is called:
    A. Parasitism
    B. Mutualism
    C. Opportunistic
    D. Commensalism
    E. Predatorism
    A. Parasitism
  57. When one organism benefits while the other is unaffected-skin bacteria
    Commensalism (eat skin bacteria, not much benefit from them.)
  58. Some intestinal bacteria synthesize vitamin K and certain B vitamins.
    Mutualism (helpful for us to have.)
  59. The end result is the formation of a Membrane Attack Complex
    A. Neutralization
    B. Immobilization
    C. Prevention of adherance
    D. Agglutination
    E. Opsonization
    F. Complement activation
    F. Complement activation
  60. What is it called when something binds to a toxin or virus and it neutralizes it? It's still in your body so the macrophases eat it to digest it & get rid of it.
  61. What is it called when an antigen cant swim away when the macrophages try to eat it?
  62. What is it called when an antigen is now combined & stuck together? Now the macrophase will eat it all together, cant spread?
    Agglutination & precipitation
  63. What is it called when macrophages eat something with or is flagged (stuck) to an antibody?
    Opdonization (it eats it all the macrophage will spit out the nurients back out into the body)
  64. What kind of toxin is gram-positive, secretion or cell lysis?
  65. What kind of toxin has gram-negative bacteria?
  66. Produced by Streptococcus pyogenes
    Erythrogenic toxin (common name is Scarlet fever)
  67. Stops all protein synthesis within a cell.
    Produced by Corynebacterium diptheriae
    Diphtheria Toxin (symptoms are lesions on skin & throat, bacteria generally infects an open wound or scrap)
  68. Can cause high fever and lethal shock called endotoxic shock.
    In high levels Mediators, In low levels its good-regulates fever, and stimulates the immune system.
  69. The toxins are Lipopolysaccharides -LPS's
    Endotoxins this bacteria can be harmful to us.
  70. What cleans up the cell debris in the body?
    Macrophages-they are cells that go around and "eat" foreign debris in the body. As macrophages clean up the bacteria they ingest LPS's
  71. What stimulates the macrophages to relase mediators into the blood stream?
  72. This bacteria is a water borne bacteria produced by Vibrio choleriae. People eat food contaminated with bacteria and bacteria infects their intestines.
    Vibrio enterotoxin Death is from dehydration, only IV fluids can help.
  73. Caused by Staph aureus. (very common in the sinus). This bacteria also infects food & the toxin is relased into the food.
    Staphylococcyl entertoxin
  74. Produced by Clostridum botulinum. This bacteria is a food contaminate, growing & producing its toxin into the food. Humans ingest the "poisoned food" & the toxin is absorbed through the digestive tract. Muscles cannot contract causing flaccid paraylsis. One pint of this toxin could wipe off entire earth!
    Botulinum toxin-this toxin blocks the relase of the acetylcholine which tells muscle to contract. Death is from heart or respiratory failure.
  75. Produced by Clostridium tetani. The bacteria infects an anaerobic wound as the bacteria grows, it releases toxin causing the muscles to contract continuously. Medically called "spastic paralysis"
    Tetanus toxin- treatment is the tetanus antitoxin
  76. What exotoxin kill or damage host cells?
  77. What toxin affect the nervous system?
  78. What toxin causes intestinal disturbance?
  79. Polymyxin-B works by:
    A. Not allowing the tRNA to properly attach
    B. Blocking DNA synthesis
    C. Blocking the ribosomes ability to move along the mRNA
    D. Preventing the formation of intact peptidoglycan
    E. Increases membrane premeability
    E. Increases membrane premeability
  80. Tetracycline works by:
    A. Not allowing the tRNA to properly attach
    B. Causing the mRNA to be read incorrectly
    C. Blocking the ribosomes ability to move along the mRNA
    D. Preventing the formation of intact peptidoglycan
    E. Damaging the plasma membrane
    A. Not allowing the tRNA to properly attach
  81. Biaxin works by:
    Binds to the large subunit of the ribosome. Prevents protein sysntesis.
  82. Erythromycin works by:
    Binds to the large subunit of the ribosome, causing premature termination of protein sysnthesis.
  83. What blocks ghe RNA polmerase from initating transcription?
  84. What inhibits DNA replication. Causes breaks in the double stranded DNA during DNA replication.
    Avelox (fluoroquinolone)
  85. What blocks synthesis of folic acid which is essential for microbial cell division?
    Sulfa drugs
  86. The second antibody made in response to an infection
  87. Found as a pentamer. First antibody made in response to an infection. Large size limits places it may go.
  88. Small number in circulation. Found in all secretions associated with mucus membranes, saliva, nasal secretions and breast milk.
  89. Less than 1%-most functions are undefined. Found on the surface of B-lymphocytes.
  90. Smallest of all antigens 0.05% simulate a histamine that gives you allergy. More of these's will build up more of these so that you dont get an allergy reaction.
  91. When someone sneezed on a newborn and gives the newborn a cold, the newborn then catches the cold and develops an immunity to the cold. This types of immunity is called _____________________ immunity.
    • A. Artificially acquired Active immunity
    • B. Artificially acquired Passive immunity
    • C. Naturally acquired active immunity
    • D. Naturallly acquired passive immunity
    • E. More than one of the above
  92. A cold you might get and then you get over it, then you develop immunity to it.
    Naturally acquired active immunity
  93. A vaccine, so now your immune to it.
    Artificaially acquired active immunity
  94. Shots of someone else's antibody's.
    Artifically acquired passive immunity
  95. The immune system that targets bacteria in the blood is the ______________________ immune system.
    A. Humoral immune system
    B. Cell-mediated immune system
    C. Both A and B
    D. Neither A nor B
    • A. Humoral immune system
    • B. Cell-mediated immune system
    • C. Both A and B
    • D. Neither A nor B
    • Main target: antigen bearing target cells: infected cells, cancerous cells, tissue transplants.
  96. Uses WBC's to get rid of what have something wrong with them.
    Cell mediated immune system
  97. What part of our immune system get rid of things that dont belong in our body?
    T-cell mediated
  98. What is it called when your tissues combaility is where your protein is unquite to you only?
    Major Histocompatability Complex: MHC protein
  99. Something that triggers or stimulates the immune system is called a(n) __________.
    A. Microbe
    B. MHC
    C. Antigen
    D. Antibody
    E. Immune response
    C. Antigen
  100. Something that triggers your immune system?
    Foregin objects: dust/mold/bacteria/someone else's heart?
  101. What are proteins in our fluid?
    Humoral immune system
Card Set
Microbiology midterm unit 3
Unit 3