lower GI path

  1. linear ulceration; stricture formation; non-caseating granulomas in bowel
  2. bowel inflammation limited to mucosa
    ulcerative colitis
  3. bowel inflammation that is transmural
  4. most likely complication of diverticulosis
    diverticulitis: pericolic abscess
  5. foul-smelling stool means
    malabsorption of fat. Bacteria needed to digest the fat for you.
  6. Why do celiac patients get bone/knee pains?
    They're not absorbing calcium.
  7. Why are celiac patients anemic?
    They're not absorbing iron.
  8. celiac susceptibility to cancer
    T-cell lymphoma, small bowel adenocarcinoma
  9. test for celiac
    tissue transglutaminase (TTG) Ab is sensitive; anti-endomysial Ab is specific
  10. inflammatory bowel disease (2 types)
    Crohn's, ulcerative colitis
  11. Where does Crohn's occur?
    anywhere from anus to terminal ileum.
  12. Gross lesions in Crohn's resemble
    Cobblestones. Skipping patches of inflammation/ulcers.
  13. Where does UC occur?
    starts in anus, removes to rectum. Ulceration is continuous.
  14. inflammation from colon that travels to ileum
    backwash ileitis
  15. we blame diverticulosis on…
    a diet lacking fiber
  16. benign colonic polyps
    hyperplastic polyps, probably in response to inflammation. Benign.
  17. villous adenoma
    bigger than tubular adenoma, high propensity to develop colon cancer
  18. tubular adenoma
    colon polyp with small chance of developing colon cancer
  19. familial adenomatous polyposis under microscope
    tubular or villous adenoma
  20. chance of colon cancer in FAP; what you do about it
    nearly 100%, scope often looking for dysplasia
  21. basis for FAP?
    APC gene… adenomatous polyposis colon. Two alleles, one from each parent, defective allele is passed down. THEN, patient develops second mutation in GI tract. Two-hit hypothesis.
  22. gross appearance of tubular adenoma
  23. gross appearance of villous adenoma
  24. Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is characterized by
    polyps all along digestive tract. Arborized hamartomas. All benign components.
  25. skin presentation of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
    densely pigmented spots on mucosal surface
  26. tarry, black stool indicates
    upper GI bleed
  27. bright red bloody stool indicates
    lower GI bleed
  28. most common cause of colon bleeding
    angiodysplasia - abnormal formation of blood vessels around wall of colon
  29. metastatic carcinoma to the colon can be treated with
    EFGR inhibitor
  30. right-sided colon cancer presentation
    anemia, weight loss, abdominal pain
  31. left-sided colon cancer presentation
    causes obstruction, detected earlier, napkin-ring constriction
  32. prognosis of right-sided vs. left-sided colon cancer
    left-sided is usually detected earlier
  33. colon cancer that only involves mucosa
    Stage 1
  34. colon cancer that hits muscularis externa
    Stage 2
  35. colon cancer that goes through muscularis externa
    Stage 3
  36. colon cancer that invades down into adventitia
    Stage 4
Card Set
lower GI path
lower GI path