ID immunology glossary P-R

  1. PAMPs
    Pathogen associated molecular patterns
  2. Paratope
    The antigen‐binding site of an antibody composed of portions of the different CDRs (HVR) of the antibody's heavy and light chain variable domains, also TCR
  3. Pattern Recognition Receptor
    A germline‐encoded receptor that recognizes unique and essential structures that are present in microorganisms, but absent from the host. In vertebrates, signalling through these receptors leads to the production of pro‐inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and to the expression of co‐stimulatory molecules by antigen‐presenting cells
  4. Peptidoglycan
    Cell wall component of Gram‐positive bacteria
  5. Perforin
    Protein released by cytotoxic T cells and NK cells thainduces apoptosis
  6. Peripheral tissue-restricted antigens
    aka tissue‐specific antigens. Proteins that are restricted in their expression to specific tissues in the periphery. To induce and maintain T cell tolerance to these proteins, they are expressed by non‐haematopoietic cells in the thymus and secondary lymphoid organs
  7. Payer's patches
    Secondary lymphoid organs present in the small intestine (mostly in the ileum). They occur on the intestinal wall, opposite the line of attachment of the mesentery, the antimesenteric border. Peyer's patches consist of a dome area, B cell follicles and interfollicular T cell areas. High endothelial venules are present mainly in the interfollicular areas
  8. PGHS
    Prostaglandin G/H synthase
  9. Phagocytosis
    The ingestion or engulfment of particles by cells
  10. Phagosome
    An intracellular vacuole containing material ingested byphagocytosis
  11. phenotype
    The morphologic characteristics of a cell or animal resulting from genetic expression
  12. Phylogeny
    Evolutionary development and history of species
  13. Plasma cell
    Lymphocyte derived from a B cell that produces antibodies
  14. Plasmacytoid DC
    A dendritic cell (DC) subset with a morphology that resembles that of a plasmablast. Plasmacytoid DCs produce large amounts of type I interferons in response to viral infection
  15. Plasmatocyte
    A phagocytic cells associated with innate immunity in invertebrates (arthropods)
  16. Polyclonal
    A term that describes the products of a number of different cell types (cf. monoclonal)
    Any antibody that comprises 2 or more 4 chain structures (H & L chains). Includes IgM and IgA
  18. Prophenyloxidase
    An enzyme that triggers melanisation after activation. The pro form is activated by a number of factors from bacteria and fungi
  19. PRR
    Pattern recognition receptors
  20. Pseudogene
    nucleotide sequence that is part of the genome of an organism that appears to code for a gene product (typically a protein) but does not (or no longer does so)
  21. RAG
    Recombination Activation Gene, RAG1 and RAG2, recombinases involved in VDJ and VJ gene segment joining
  22. RANTES
    Regulated on activation, normal T expressed and secreted
  23. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)
    Various reactive oxygen species, including superoxideanions produced by phagocytes via the activation of theNADPH oxidase enzymatic system, and other compounds derived from superoxide anion metabolism,such as hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. Crucial for the antimicrobial activity of neutrophils
  24. Recombination
    The process describing the cutting and re‐splicing of immunoglobulin (and TCR) gene segments making up the variable regions. Is restricted to influencing the CDR3 region of the final protein product, involves RAGs
    A subset of T cells that control the activity of effector T cells under inflammatory or steady state conditions
  26. Resolvins
    Lipid mediators that are induced in the resolution phase following acute inflammation. They are synthesized from the essential omega‐3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid
  27. ROI
    Reactive oxygen species, e.g., hydrogen peroxide
Card Set
ID immunology glossary P-R
immunglossary - P through to R