1. In order for a reaction to be spontaneous, ∆G˚ must be...
    Less than 0

  2. Why can positive ions be considered to be fixed during electron oscillation?
    An ion is thousands of times more massive than an electron. Won't respond as quickly due to large inertia.
  3. When a molecule has a relatively low boiling point, what does it say about the intermolecular forces?
    They are not strong and most likely to be van der Waals unless the passage gives further info.
  4. Determining E˚ (electrode potentials)
    With given values, the E˚ is equal to the sum of the E˚'s for each half reaction.

    Moles are not taken into account.
  5. The ideal gas law makes what assumption about molecules?
    They have no volume and therefore take up no space. This assumption is adequate until the pressure is significantly increased when it is no longer negligible.
  6. Calculating molarity with density and molar mass
    Multiply density (g/ml) by 1L (1000 mL) and divide by molar mass.
  7. Light spectrum
    Image Upload 2
  8. Electromagnetic wave type
    Transverse wave, oscillating at right angles to the propogation vector.
  9. Pressure wave type
  10. In order to compare rates of reaction what info must be supplied?
    Kinetic information
  11. Snell's Law
    Image Upload 4

    n - indices of refraction

    Index of refraction of air - 1
  12. Determining electron affinity from an equation
    Look for the molecule being reduced, or in other words which species is accepting or gaining electrons.
  13. To find the relative refractive index to air what info is needed?
    Both incident and refracted angles.

    The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection.
  14. Calculating the number of possible stereoisomers

    n - number of stereocenters
  15. Which is more polar: a ketone or an alcohol?
    Alcohol because it can form H-bonds.
  16. What reacts most quickly with HCl?
    Tertiary alcohols.
  17. Primary process that takes place in the colon
    Absorption of water.
  18. How does the immune system avoid attacking its own body tissues?
    It suppresses cells specific to the body's own antigens.
  19. What surrounds the gastrointestinal tract?
    The peritoneal cavity.
  20. Where is blood pressure the lowest?
    • 1. Veins (lowest)
    • 2. Capillaries
    • 3. Arteries (highest)
  21. Somatic vs. Germ
    A somatic cell is a body cell; it can only undergo mitosis. A germ cell (that produces either haploid eggs or sperm) undergoes meiosis.
  22. What is digested in the stomach?
  23. Saliva breaks down?
    Starches to sugars.
  24. What is the product of translation?
  25. What process regenerates bodily tissues?
  26. Cholesterol is a precursor to...

    The body makes use of the steroid backbone of cholesterol to produce the hormone testosterone.
  27. Faraday
    1 mol of electric charge (electrons)
  28. The only somatic or visceral cell-type tissue that derives from a single blastomere is:
    The gut
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