What are the three primary functions of the digestive system? What happens in each one?
- Intake and Digestion
- - Intake of water, vitamins and minerals + digestion of food
- - Abosprtion of particles, water and etc. into blood
- - Eliminate any unused material in form of semisolid waste.
What are the parts of the oral cavity?
- - Upper and lower teeth
- - Hard and soft palates
- - Palatine Uvula
- - Toungue
- - Pharynx
What are the three Salivary Glands?
- - Parotid
- - Submandibular
- - Sublingual
Are Salivary Glands considered Accesory organs?
What is the cemical composition of saliva?
How much saliva do you secrete daily?
1k to 15k mL daily
What does Saliva do? What does it do to starch?
Saliva helps dissolves food to begin digestion. It has enzymes that begins the digestion of starch.
What is the act of swallowing known as?
How long is the pharynx?
12.5 cm long
What are the three parts of the pharynx? Where are they?
- - Nasophayrnx: Poseterior to the bony nasal septum and nasal cavities.
- - Oropaharynx: Directly posterior to oral cavity proper
- - Laryngopharynx: Extends for the epiglottis to the level of lower border of the cricoid cartilage.
What does the tounge help prevent?
It prevents food from comig back to the mouth.
What does the epiglottis do?
Covers the laryngeal opening.
How long is your esophogus? ( or Gullet )
9 and 3/4s inches or 25 cm long.
Where does the esophagus start?
- Posetrior to the lower border of the cricoid cartilage.
- At level of C6
Where does the esophagus end?
Level of T11
Where is the esophagus most constricted?
- - Entrance of Thorax
- - When it passes through the Diaphragm
- - When it goes through the mediastainum where its indentated by the aortic arch and the left primary bronchus
What is peristalsis?
Wavelike series of involuntary muscular contraction that brings food through.
What is the greek and latin name for stomach?
- Gastr - Greek
- Latin - Ventriculus
What is the portion of the esophagus between the stomach and diaphraghm?
What is the opening between the esophagus and the stomach?
Esophagogastric Junction ( Cardiac orifice )
What is the Rugae?
Gastric Folds ( Internal Folds of stomach )
What is the gastric canal formed by?
Formed by ruagae along hte lesser curavture to move fluids directly to the pylorus
What is the most superior part of the stomach?
What are the two curvatures of the stomach
- Lesser - Medial
- Greater - Lateral Part
Where is the Pylorus?
Pretty much the last part of the stomach.
What part of the pylorus goes into the duodenum?
What are the parts of the Pylorus?
- Pyloric Antrum - Entrance
- Pyloric Canal - Middle of it
- Pylroic Sphincter - End.
How does the air move in the supine position inside the stomach? How does barium move ?
- Air moves the distal part of the body and some of the pylorus.
- Barium will go through the distal portion of the pylorus and gravitate to the proximal pylorus.
How does barium an air move through toe stomach in prone position?
- Air moves to the fundus and the distal portion of the pylorus.
- Barium will gravitate to the body and the proximal pylorus.
How long is the duodenum?
What is the 1st portion of the bowel?
What shape is the duodenum?
Where does the duoednenum end?
Ends at ligament of Treitz but continues into Jejunum.
Where is the pancreas?
It is nestled in the C loop of the duodenum ( Its wrapped around the pancreas )
What is the mixing and churning activity in the small bowel wcalled?
What is chyme?
When contents are churned and mixed with stomach fluids.
Double contrasts are done for what?
To visualize the stomach and esophageal mucosa
What do esophagrams show?
- - Anatomical anomalies
- - Impaired swallowing
- - Foreign body obstruction
- - Esosphageal reflux
- - Esophageal varices
What should you do for patient preparation?
Remove clothing and anything metallic and then gown.
What do you do to see esophageal reflux?
- Breathing exercises ( Valsava Manuver )
- Water test
- Compression Paddle Tecnique
- Toe Touch Test ( reaching down to your toe )
For doign esophagrams, do you use grids?
Where is the CR fror an esophagram?
T5 - T6, Lightfield should be 2 inches above shoulder.
What positions are used for an esophagram?
RAO, Right Lateral, AP
What is UGI exam?
Examination of the distal esophagus, stomach and duodenum.
What are some clinical indications for an Upper GI?
- - Peptic Ulcers
- - Hietal Hernia
- - Acute or Chronic gastritis
- - Tumor
- - Diverticual
- - Bezoar
What do you need for patient prepration for a UGI
- NPO for 8-10 hours ( dont take anything by mouth for 8-10 hours )
- No eating
- No smoking
- No gum chewing.
For an RAO UGI, where its the CR?
- Level of L1
- Asthenic = L2
- hypersthenic = T12