Chapter 16

  1. Adequate breathing
    • Intact (open) airway
    • Normal respiratory rate
    • Normal rise 7 fall of chest
    • Normal respiratory rhythm
    • Breath sounds present bilaterally
    • Chest expansion & relaxation occuring normally
    • Minimal to absent use of accessory muscles to aid in breathing
  2. Abnormal factors in breathing
    • Increased width of space between alveoli and blood vessels
    • Lack of perfusion of the pulmonary capillaries from the r. ventricle
    • Filling of alveoli with fluid, blood or pus
  3. Wheezing
    High-pitched, musical, whistling sound that is best heard initially on exhalation but may also be heard during inhalation in more severe cases. Indicitave of swelling and constriction of the inner lining of the bronchioles. (asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis)
  4. Rhonchi
    Snoring or rattling noises heard upon auscultation. Indicative of obstruction of the larger conducting airways of the respiratory tract by thick secretions of mucus. (chronic bronchitis, emphysema, aspiration, and pneumonia)
  5. Crackles (rales)
    Bubbly or crackling sounds heard during inhalation. Indicative of fluid that has surrounded or filled the alveoli or very small bronchioles. (Pulmonary edema, or pneumonia)
  6. Hypoxemia
    Decreased O2 levels in the blood
  7. Dyspnea
    Shortness of breath or perceived difficulty in breathing
  8. Apnea
    Absence of breathing; respiratory arrest
  9. Hypoxia
    Absence of sufficient O2 in the body cells
  10. Bronchoconstriction (bronchospasm)
    Significant narrowing of the bronchioles of the lower airway from inflammation, swelling, or constriction of the muscle layer
  11. Bronchodilator
    Medication designed to dilate the bronchioles, resulting in an increase in te effectiveness of breathing and relief from the signs and symptoms
  12. Sensation of shortness of breath usually caused by one of the following:
    • Mechanical disruption to the airway, lung, or chest wall
    • Stimulation of the receptors in the lungs
    • Inadequate gas exchange at the level of the alveoli and capillaries
    • Ventilation disturbance
    • Perfusion distubance
    • Both ventilation & perfusion disturbance in the lungs
  13. Respiratory distress
    Increased respiratory effort resulting from impaired respiratory function. Patient has an adequate chest rise (tidal volume) and resp. rate
  14. Respiratory failure
    Inadequate respiratory rate and/or tidal volume. Patient will have inadequate chest rise (tidal volume) or inadequate respiratory rate or both.
  15. Respiratory arrest
    Complete stoppage of breathing. Patient needs immediate ventilation with bvm or other ventilation device and supplemental O2
  16. Diseases that may cause respiratory distress
    Emphysema, Chronic bronchitis, Asthma, Pneumonia, Pulmonary embolism, Pulmonary edema, Spontaneous pneumothoras, Hyperventilation syndrome, Epiglottitis, Pertussis, Cystic fibrosis, Poisonous exposures, Viral respiratory infections
Card Set
Chapter 16
Respiratory Emergencies