cumulative- theories & developmental areas

  1. 3 areas of development
    biological/physical processes, cognitive processes (changes in thought, IQ, & language), soci-emotional processes (personality, emotions, relationships)
  2. behavior affected by underlying emotions and the unconscious mind
    psychoanalytic theories
  3. personality, Id, ego, superego, defense mechanisms
    Freud's psychoanalytic theory
  4. unconscious instincts; compulsive; "pleasure principle"
  5. executive branch of the mind; deals with reality
  6. moral branch of the mind; one's "conscience"
  7. Freud's defense mechanisms
    regression, displacement, repression
  8. Freud's stages of development
    Oral (birth-18 months), anal (18 months-3 years), phallic (3-6 years-Oedipus complex), latency (6 years to puberty), genital (puberty onward)
  9. 1st year of life
    trust vs. mistrust
  10. infancy (1-3 years)
    autonomy vs. shame and doubt
  11. early childhood
    initiative vs. guilt
  12. middle & late childhood
    industry vs. inferiority
  13. adolescence
    identity vs. identity confusion
  14. early adulthood
    intimac vs. isolation
  15. middle adulthood
    generativity vs. stagnation
  16. late adulthood
    integrity vs. despair
  17. children actively contrcut their undertsanding of the world; accommodation; assimilation; 4 stages- sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational, formal operational
    Piaget's cognitive development theory
  18. the process of modifying old schemes or creating new ones to better fit assimilated information; making an adjustment
  19. the process of bringing new objects or information into a schem that already exists; new learning
  20. process of changing a cognitive structure or the environment (or both) in order to understand the environment
  21. birth-2 years: uses senses and motor skills,
    items known by use, object permanence
    sensorimotor stage
  22. 2-7 years; symbolic thinking, language used,
    egocentrism, animism, imagination/experience grows, child de-centers
    pre-operational stage
  23. 7-11 years; logic applied, objective/rational
    interpretations, conservation, numbers, ideas, classifications
    concrete operational
  24. 11 years on; thinks abstractly, hypothetical
    ideas, ethics, politics, social/moral issues explored
    formal operational stage
  25. Social and cultural interactions guide cognitive development; Interactions with more skilled adults and peers teach adaptive skills for success; Knowledge is
    situated and collaborative; Memory, attention,
    reasoning involves learning to use society’s inventions
    sociocultural theory (Vygotsky)
  26. capacity is gradually developed (no stages); comparing
    computer to human brain emphasize how individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it; sensory information --> input --> storage --> retrieval
    information processing theory
  27. generalizing fear as an involuntary response
    classical conditioning (Watson)
  28. use of punishments and rewards shapes behavior and development
    operant conditioning (Skinner)
  29. observational learning, behavior, environment, & cognition are key factors in development
    social learning theory (Bandura)
  30. use imitation or modeling to adopt behaviors
    observational learning
  31. development is influenced by environment or
    systems (set of interacting units with relationships among them)
    ecologiocal theory (Bronfenbrenner)
  32. system immediate to the individual
  33. relationships between microsystems
  34. external settings that the person does not play a direct role
  35. system of culture or society
  36. system involving time or history
  37. behavior influenced by biology; Lorenz experiemen-imprinting; Bowlby attachment to caregiver
    ethological theory
  38. does not follow one theoretical approach, but selects and uses from each theory whatever is considered the best in it
    eclectic theory
Card Set
cumulative- theories & developmental areas
final exam vocab