Board DNK Cards1

  1. Antinuclear (ANA) antibodies
    SLE, nonspecific
  2. Anti-ds DNA, Anti-Smith antibodies
  3. Antihistone antibodies
    Drug-induced lupus
  4. Anti-IgG (Rheumatoid Factor) -> IgM against IgG
    Rheumatoid Arthritis
  5. Anticentromere
    Scleroderma (CREST)
  6. Anti-Scl70 (anti DNA topoisomerase I)
    Diffuse Scleroderma
  7. Antimitochondrial
    Primary Biliary Cirrhosis
  8. Antigliadin, antiendomysial
    Celiac disease
  9. Anti-basement membrane
    Goodpasture's Syndrome
  10. Anti-desmoglein
    Pemphigus Vulgaris
  11. Antihemidesmoglein
    Bullous Pemphigus
  12. Antimicrosomal, antithyroglobulin
    Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
  13. Anti-Jo-1
    Polymyositis, Dermomyositis
  14. Anti-SS-A (Anti-Ro)
    Sjogren's Syndrome
  15. Anti-SS-B, Anti-La
    Sjogren's Syndrome
  16. Anti-U1 RNP (ribonucleoprotein)
    Mixed Connective Tissue Disease
  17. Anti-smooth muscle
    Autoimmune hepatitis
  18. Anti-glutamate decarboxylase, anti-glutamic acid
    Type I diabetes mellitus
  19. c-ANCA
    Wegener's Granulomatosis
  20. p-ANCA
    Microscopic Polyangitis, Churg-Strauss Disease
  21. mpo-ANCA
    pauci immune crescentic glomerulonephritis
  22. anti TSH receptor
    Graves Disease
  23. anti ACh receptor
    Myasthenia Gravis
  24. Cyclosporine
    • Calcineurin
    • IL-2 Inhibitor
    • Transplant Rejection
    • Nephrotox
    • Mannitol diuresis prevents
  25. Tacrolimus
    • XFK -| IL-2 secretion
    • Organ transplants, eczema
    • peripheral neuropathy
  26. Sirolimus (rapamycin)
    • XFK -| MTOR -| IL-2
    • kidney transplants w/ Cyclosporine
  27. Daclizumab
    monoclonal antibody against IL-2 receptors on T cells

    kidney transplant
  28. Azathioprine
    • Inhibits nucleic acid synth
    • precursor of 6-mercaptopurine
    • used for glomerulonephritis and hemolytic anemia
    • metabolized by xanthine oxidase
    • aplastic anemia
  29. Muromonab
    • MAB against CD3 on T cells
    • kidney transplant
  30. Mycophenolate
    • inhibits inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase
    • prevents production of GUANINE
    • Transplants, lupus nephritis
  31. Infliximab, Etanercept and Adalimumab
    • Targets TNFa
    • Crohn's, RA, psoriatic arthritis and HLA-B27 seronegative arthropathies, ankylosing spondylolysis
  32. Abciximab
    • platelet activity
    • targets glycoprotein IIb/IIIa
    • unstable angina
  33. Trastuzumab
    HER2 Breast cancer
  34. Rituximab
    CD20 on b cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma
  35. Omalizumab
    IgE - type I hypersensitivity. Asthma
  36. What secretory products are secreted from these cells?
    G cells
    I cells
    S cells
    D cells
    Parietal cells
    Chief cells
    • G - gastrin
    • I - CCK
    • S - secretin
    • D - somatostatin
    • Parietal - intrinsic factor, gastric acid
    • Chief - Pepsin
  37. Rate limiting enzyme of : glycloysis
    phosphofrucktokinase 1 (PFK1)
  38. Rate limiting enzyme of : Gluconeogenesis
    Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase
  39. Rate limiting enzyme of :TCA (Krebs) cycle
    Isocitrate dehydrogenase
  40. Rate limiting enzyme of : Glycogen Synthesis
    Glycogen synthase
  41. Rate limiting enzyme of : Glycogenolysis
    glycogen phosphorylase
  42. Rate limiting enzyme of : HMP Shunt
    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)
  43. Rate limiting enzyme of : De novo pyrimidine synthesis
    Carbamoyl phosphate synthase II
  44. Rate limiting enzyme of : De novo purine synthesis
    Glutamine-PRPP amidotransferase
  45. Rate limiting enzyme of : Urea cycle
    Carbamoyl phophate synthetase I
  46. Rate limiting enzyme of : Fatty Acid Synthesis
    Acetyl-Co A Carboxylase (ACC)
  47. Rate limiting enzyme of : Fatty acid oxidation
    Carnitine acyltransferase I
  48. Rate limiting enzyme of : Ketogenesis
    HMG-CoA Synthase
  49. Rate limiting enzyme of : Cholesterol synthesis
    HMG Co-A Reductase (MOA of statins)
  50. Mnemonic:

    Hot T Bone stEAk
    • IL 1 - fever
    • IL 2 - t cell stimulation
    • IL 3 - bone marrow stimulation
    • IL 4 - IgE and IgG
    • IL 5 - IgA and Eosinophils
  51. Mnemonic: TLC For No one
    Pyruvate Dehydrogenase and a-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase Cofactors

    • Thiamine pyrophosphate
    • Lipoic Acid
    • Co A
    • FAD
    • NAD
  52. Name the Immunodeficiency: neutrophils fail to respond to chemotactic signals, high IgE
    Job Syndrome
  53. Name the Immunodeficiency: Adenosine Deaminase deficiency
  54. Name the Immunodeficiency: failure of endodermal development
    Di George (thymic aplasia)
  55. Name the Immunodeficiency: Defective Tyrosine Kinase (BTK gene)
    Bruton's Immunoglobulinemia
  56. How does hexokinase differ from glucokinase?
    Hexokinase - everywhere, NOT insulin induced, low Km, low Vmax

    Glucokinase - liver and B islet cells, Insulin induced, High Km, high Vmax
  57. When do you see Mallory Bodies
    Alcoholic Hepatitis

    intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions
  58. Occlusion of IVC or hepatic veins - no JVD. Associated with pregnancy, hypercoagulable states, polycythemia vera and hepatocellular carcinoma.
    Budd-Chiari Syndrome
  59. Describe the conditions associated with hereditary hyperbilirubinemia
    • Gilberts - can't grab - no uptake of bilirubin
    • Criggler Najjar - can't conjugate - kernicterus assoc - phototherapy and plasmaphoresis

    Dubin Johnson - can't dump - can't excrete, grossly black liver
  60. Due to backup of blood into liver. JVD. Caused by right sided heart failure
    Nutmeg liver
  61. + ANA, anti-smooth muscle antibodies and anti-kidney microsomal antibodies
    Autoimmune hepatitis
  62. Rate Limiting Enzyme: Fatty Acid Synthesis
    acetyl CoA carboxylase
  63. Rate Limiting Enzyme: FA B-oxidation
    carnitine acyl transferase
  64. Rate Limiting Enzyme: Ketone synthesis
    HMG CoA Synthetase
  65. Rate Limiting Enzyme: Cholesterol Synthesis
    HMG CoA Reductase (statin drugs)
  66. What structures run through the cavernous sinus?
    CN's III, IV, V1, V2, VI
  67. Drug Suffix: "conazole"
  68. Drug Suffix: "cycline"
    Antibiotic - protein synthesis inhibitor (tetracycline)
  69. Drug Suffix: "navir"
    Protease inhibitor - HIV drug
  70. Drug Suffix: "triptan"
    5-HT 1B/1D agonists (migraine) sumatriptan
  71. Drug Suffix: "ane"
    inhaled anesthetics
  72. Drug Suffix: "caine"
    Local anesthetics
  73. Drug Suffix: "operidol"
    Butyrophenone neuroleptics (Haloperidol)
  74. Drug Suffix: "azine"
    Phenothiazine neuroleptics, antiemetics (chlorpromazine)
  75. Drug Suffix: "barbital"
  76. Drug Suffix: "zolam" or "azepam"
    Benzo's (alprazolam, diazepam)
  77. Drug Suffix: "etine"
    SSRI - Fluoxetine
  78. Drug Suffix: "ipramine" or "triptyline"
    TCA (imipramine, amitriptyline)
  79. Drug Suffix: "olol"
    B antagonist (B blockers)
  80. Drug Suffix: "terol"
    B2 agonist (albuterol)
  81. Drug Suffix: "zosin"
    a1 antagonists (prazosin)
  82. Drug Suffix: "oxin"
    cardiac glycoside
  83. Drug Suffix: "pril"
    ACE Inhibitor
  84. Drug Suffix: "afil"
    phosphodiesterase inhibitors
  85. Drug Suffix: "tropin"
    Pituitary Hormone
  86. Drug Suffix: "tidine"
    H2 antagonist (cimetidine)
  87. Drug Suffix: "sartan"
    Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB's)
  88. Drug Suffix: "chol"
    Muscarinic Agonist
  89. Drug Suffix: "stigmine"
    Anticholinesterase inhibitors
  90. Drug Suffix: "mistine"
    nitrosuria's - cancer drugs for brain tumors
  91. Drug Suffix: "curium"
    paralytics (rocuronium) - non-depolarizing muscular blockers - reverse with neostigmine
  92. Drug Suffix: "statins"
    HMG CoA Reductase drugs (cholesterol)
  93. Drug Suffix: "gliatzone"
    Diabetes - increase insulin sensitivity
  94. Drug Suffix: "bendazole"
    Helminth infections - "bendy drug for bendy worms"
  95. Drug Suffix: "dipine"
    Calcium Channel Blockers - nifedipine
  96. Drug Suffix: "prost"
    mifeprostine - prostaglandin drugs
  97. Drug Suffix: "mab"
    monoclonal antibody (infliximab)
  98. Image Upload 1
    Acanthocyte (spur cell)

    • Liver Disease
    • Abetalipoproteinemia
  99. Image Upload 2
    Basophillic stippling

    • Mnemonic: TAIL
    • Thalassemias
    • Anemia
    • Iron Deficiency
    • Lead Poisoning * - most important

    clumps of denatured RNA
  100. Image Upload 3
    Bite Cell

    • G6PD deficiency
    • Associated with Heinz Bodies
  101. Image Upload 4

    MegalOblastic Anemia
  102. Image Upload 5
    Ringed Sideroblast

    Sideroblasts are normal, but when they are found with the ring - sideroblastic anemia

    symptom of underlying disease from lead, drugs or genetics
  103. Image Upload 6
    Schistocyte aka "Helmet Cell"

    DIC, TTP/HUS, Traumatic Hemolysis

    cells are forced through fibrotic areas and sliced up
  104. Image Upload 7
    Sickle Cell Anemia
  105. Image Upload 8

    Hereditary spherocytosis, autoimmune hemolysis
  106. Image Upload 9
    Teardrop Cell

  107. Image Upload 10
    Target Cell

    HALT! or THAL - Thalassemia, HbC disease, Asplenia, Liver Disease
  108. Image Upload 11
    Heinz Bodies

    oxidation of iron accumulates - G6PD deficiency, a-thalassemia

    Associated with Bite Cells
  109. Image Upload 12
    Howell-Jolly Bodies

    nuclear remnants in RBCs - asplenia or functional asplenia (like sickle cell)
  110. Acute Intermittent Porphyria
    Deficiency in porphobilinogen deaminase

    acute abdominal pain, acute neuropathy, psych disturbance, dark urine

    tx: heme and glucose
  111. Porphyria Cutanea Tarda
    Deficiency in uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase

    Homeless Guy! "Uro" above like "Urine" smells

    skin blistering, photosensitivity, tea colored urine, alcohol, excessive hair, hepatitis C
  112. Lead Poisoning
    GI, Kidney Disease, Microcytic Anemia

    Deficiency in ferrochelatase and ALA dehydratase

    • Kids - mental deterioration, basophilic stippling
    • Adults - lead lines (dark lines on gums), headache, memory loss, demyelination

    Tx: dimercaperol EDTA Succinyl.
  113. Rate limiting enzyme of heme synthesis -
    delta-aminolevulinic acid
  114. Rate limiting enzyme of pyrimidine synthesis
    carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II
  115. What is this enzyme involved in? Where does it work in the cell? Where does it get it's nitrogen?

    carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I
    • Mitochondria
    • Urea Cycle
    • N - ammonia
  116. What is this enzyme involved in? Where does it work in the cell? Where does it get it's nitrogen?

    carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II
    • Cytosol
    • Pyrimidine Synthesis
    • N - Glutamine
  117. Lesch Nyhan Syndrome
    Deficiency in HGPRT

    retardation, self-mutilation, aggression, chorea, gout

    Tx: allopurinol
  118. SCID
    Deficiency in adenosine deaminase

    severe recurrent infections, diarrhea, failure to thrive, no thymic shadow
  119. Xeroderma Pigmentosum
    • defect in nucleotide excision repair of DNA
    • can't repair thimine dimers.

    1000x risk for skin cancer, hypersensitivity to UV light
  120. Ataxia-Telangiectasia
    defect is non-homologous end joining of DNA

    sensitive to ionizing radiation, 1-2 y/o, immunodeficiency, gait ataxia, poor smooth pursuits vision
  121. Bloom Syndrome
    hypersensitivity to sunlight, cancer onset at 25
  122. Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC)
    Defect in mismatch repair of DNA
  123. What medication inhibits: ribonucleotide reductase? What step of De Novo Synthesis is it involved in?
    Hydroxyurea inhibits

    UMP -> UDP
  124. What medication inhibits: dihydrofolate reductase? What step of De Novo Synthesis is it involved in?
    Methotrexate and Trimethoprim (prokaryotes)

    Folate Cycling
  125. What medication inhibits: thymidylate synthase? What step of De Novo Synthesis is it involved in?

    dUMP -> dTMP
  126. What medication inhibits: inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase?
  127. What medication inhibits: PRPP synthetase?
    6-mercaptopurine (remember xantine oxidase activates this)
Card Set
Board DNK Cards1
Review every night until you know this!