micro chap 23

  1. -urine is a good growth medium for many microorganisms
    -reduced urine flow or accidental introduction of bacteria into the bladder can result in cystitis
    -if the infection also affects the kidneys it is called pyelonephritis
    -an infection only in the urethra: urethritis
    urinary tract infections (UTIs)
  2. *sudden onset of symptoms
    -pain in the pubic area
    -frequent urges to urinate even when the bladder is empty
    -burning pain accompanying urination (dysuria)
    -cloudy urine
    -orange tinge to the urine (hematuria)
    -fever and nausea
    -back pain indicated kidneys may also by involved
  3. -zoonosis associated with wild animals and domesticated animals
    -can affect the kidneys, liver, brain, and eyes
    -major effects on the kidneys and is shed onto the environment through animal urine
    -two phases:
    *early (leptospiremic) phase
    -sudden high fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, conjunctivitis, and vomiting
    *second phase (immune phase)
    -milder fever, headache, Weil's syndrome (kidney invasion), hepatic disease, jaundice, anemia, and neurological disturbances
  4. -Schistosoma haematobium lodges in the blood vessels of the bladder
    -may or may not result in symptoms
    -if symptoms occur: itchiness in the area where the worm enters the body, fever, chills, diarrhea, and cough
    -urinary tract symptoms occur later which may include blood in the urine and bladder obstruction
    urinary Schistosomiasis
  5. -inflammation of the vagina
    -vaginal itching to some degree
    -burning and sometimes a discharge occurs
    -symptoms depend on the etiologic agent
    vaginitis and vaginosis
  6. -normal biota living in low numbers
    -if grows rapidly and causes a yeast infection, white vaginal discharge occurs
    candida albicans
  7. -infection called vaginosis rather than vaginitis because inflammatino in the vagina does not occur
    -vaginal discharge with a very fishy odor, especially after sex
    -itching is common
    Gardnerella species
  8. -asymptomatic infections in approximately 50% of females and males
    -some people experience long-term negative effects
    Trichomonas vaginalis
  9. -inflammation of the prostate gland
    -acute or chronic
    -pain in the pelvic area, lower back, or genital area; frequent urge to urinate; blood in the urine; and/or painful ejaculation
  10. -N. gonorrhoeae is the etiologic agent- also known as the gonococcus
    -symptoms in the male
    *urethritits, painful urination and a yellowish discharge
    *can occasionally spread from the urethra to the prostate gland and epididymus
    *scar tissue in the spermatic ducts during healing can render a man infertile (rare)
    -symptoms in the female
    *likely that both urinary and genital tracts will be infected
    *mucopurulent or bloody vaginal discharge
    *painful urination if urethra is affected
    *major complications occur when the infection ascends from the vagina and cervix to higher reproductive structures
    -pelvic inflammatory disease
  11. -most common reportable infectious disease in the US
    -majority of cases are asymptomatic
    -symptoms in males:
    *inflammation of the urethra
    *symptoms mimicking gonorrhea
    *untreated infections may lead to epdidymitis
    -symptoms in female
    *may lead to PID
    -certain strains can invade the lymphatic tissues, resulting in lymphagranuloma venereum
    *headache, fever, muscle aches
    *lymph nodes fill with granuloma cells and become enlarged and tender
    -babies born to mothers with infections can develop eye infections and pneumonia
  12. -three common infectious conditions resulting in lesions on a person's genitals
    -syphilis, chancroid, and genital herpes
    -having one of these diseases increases the chances of infection with HIV because of the open lesions
    genital ulcer diseases
  13. -three distinct clinical stages: primary, secondary, and tertiary
    -latent periods of varying duration also occur
    -transmissible during the early latency period between secondary and tertiary
    -largely non-transmissible during late latent and tertiary stages
  14. -appearance of a hard chancre at the site of entry of the pathogen (after an incubation period of 9 days to 3 months)
    -lymph nodes draining the affected region become enlarged and firm
    -chancre filled with spirochetes
    -chancre heals spontaneously in 3-6 weeks but by then the spirochete has moved into the circulation
    primary syphilis
  15. -3 weeks to 6 months after the chancre heals
    -many systems have been invaded
    -fever, headache, sore throat, followed by lymphadenopathy and a red or brown rash that breaks out on all skin surfaces
    -hair often falls out
    -lesions contain viable spirochetes and disappear spontaneously in a few weeks
    -major complications occur in bones, hair follicles, joints, liver, eyes, and brain
    secondary syphilis
  16. -highly varied latent period, can last for 20 years or longer
    -rare because of the use of antibiotics
    -major complications occur by this stage
    -cardiovascular syphilis: weakens the arteries in the aortic wall
    -gummas develop in the tissues such as the liver, skin, bone, and cartilage
    latency and tertiary syphilis
  17. -from a pregnant woman's circulation into the placenta and fetal tissues
    -inhibits fetal growth
    -disrupts critical periods of development
    congenital syphilis
  18. -no system-wide effects
    -infection usually begins as a soft papule at the point of contact
    -develops into a soft chancre (painful in men, but may be unnoticed in women)
    -inguinal lymph nodes can become swollen and tender
  19. -caused by herpes simples viruses (HSVs)
    -multiple presentations
    *no symptoms, or single of multiple vescicles on the genitalia, perineum, thigh, and buttocks
    *lesions from initial infection can be accompanied by malaise, anorexia, fever, and bilateral swelling and tenderness of the groin
    *occasionally meningitis or encephalitis can develop
    -after recovery from initial infection, may have recurrent episodes of lesions; generally less severe
    -in the neonate and fetus, HSV infections are very destructive and can be fatal
    genital herpes
  20. *causative agents of genital warts
    *an individual can be infected with HPV without having warts, however
    human papillomavirus (HPV)
  21. -unclassified virus in the pox family
    -can take the form of skin lesions
    -wart-like growths on the mucous membranes or skin of the genital area
    molluscum contagiosum
  22. -10%-40% of women in the US are colonized asymptomatically
    -when these women become pregnant, about half of their infants become colonized by the bacterium during passage through the birth canal
    -small percentage of infected infants experience life-threatening bloodstream infections, meningitis, or pneumonia
    Group B Streptococcus "Colonization"- neonatal disease
Card Set
micro chap 23
infectious diseases affecting the genitourinary system