1. Macromolecules
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic Acids

  2. monomers
    • building blocks

  3. Carbohydrates

    Building Blocks

    • Monosaccharides

  4. Amino Acid Structure
    Image Upload 1

  5. Lipids

    • C,H,O

  6. Lipids

    • Energy Storage, Cell membranes, hormones

  7. Lipids

    • No 2:1 ratio!!! Long carbon chains with glycerol head

  8. Lipids

    Building Blocks
    Fatty Acids & Glycerol

  9. Proteins
    • Structure, Helping chemical reactions, fight disease, cell transport
  10. Nucleic Acids
    Building Blocks

    • Nucleotides
  11. Nucleic Acids

    • Information storage and messaging

  12. Nucleic Acids

    • C,H,O,N,P

  13. Proteins

    • C,H,O,N
  14. What role do enzyme play in chemical reactions?
    Enzymes speed up chemical reactions, but they only work well is certain conditions.

  15. What factors Affect Enzymes?
    pH, Temperature, Concentration

  16. Trophic Level

  17. Trophic Level
    • Herbivore or
    • Primary Consumer

  18. Trophic Level
    • Secondary Consumer
    • Carnivore

  19. Trophic Level
    • Tertiary Consumer
    • Carnivore

  20. Commensalism
    • One Benits other not affected
    • Barnackle and humback whale

  21. Mutualism
    • Both species benefit
    • Clownfish and Anemone

  22. Parasitism

    • One benefits one Doesn’t
    • Tape worms

  23. Sketch exponential growth
    Image Upload 2

  24. ¢ What stops exponential growth?
    limiting factor

  25. Sketch logistic growth
    Image Upload 3

  26. What defines when logistic growth levels out?
    carrying capacity

  27. Density dependent
    Strong when a population is a certain density

  28. Density independent
    Effects all populations

  29. ¨ Which of the following is PROKARYOTIC?
    a) Human cell
    b) Paramecium
    c) Viruses
    d) Bacteria

  30. ¨ Which of the following does not have cell walls?
    a) Animal cells
    b) Bacteria cells
    c) Plant cells

  31. what major cell part do prokaryotic cells lack?
    • nucleus

  32. An organelle is defined as
    a) A cell part that has no obvious function
    b) An organ inside of a midget
    c) A structure in a cell that has a specific function
    d) The tissue that makes up our organs

  33. If the ocular lens is 40x and the objective lens is 10x what is the overall magnification?

  34. ¨ The advantage of using a light microscope is
    a) Having greater resolution than electron microscopes
    b) View the reactions going on inside of living cells
    c) It is the most powerful microscope you can buy
    d) Magnifies things 100,000 times

  35. ¨ Cells are
    a) Independently living things in humans
    b) The smallest thing that exists on Earth
    c) The smallest unit of life
    d) In everything – including viruses

  36. ¨ To function efficiently a cell must be
    a) Large
    b) Medium
    c) Small
    d) On steroids

  37. ¨ As volume increases in a cell, the surface area
    a) Increases at the same rate
    b) Increases at a slower rate
    c) Increases at a faster rate
    d) Image Upload 4Remains the same

  38. ¨ What type of molecules are the orange dots with tails?
    a) Carbohydrate
    b) Phospholipid
    c) Protein
    d) Nucleic acid

  39. ¨ As volume increases in a cell, the surface area
    a) Increases at the same rate
    b) Increases at a slower rate
    c) Increases at a faster rate
    d) Remains the same

  40. ¨ What type of molecules are the orange dots with tails?
    a) Carbohydrate
    b) Phospholipid
    c) Protein
    d) Nucleic acid

  41. what part of the membrane is “hydrophobic”?
    • inside

  42. ¨ What type of molecules are the purple things that act as drawbridges into and out of the cell?
    a) Carbohydrate
    b) Lipid
    c) Protein
    d) Nucleic acid

  43. what does “selectively permeable” mean and why is it important to cells?
    • Only allowing some molecules in

  44. ¨ The lipids that form the cell membrane are known as
    a) Glycolipids
    b) Proteolipids
    c) Phospholipids
    d) Nucleolipids

  45. ¨ The cell membrane is “selectively permeable” which means…
    a) Nothing can get into or out of the cell
    b) Some things are allowed through
    c) Everything can move through except water
    d) Items can only move through the cell membrane one direction at a time

  46. Image Upload 5Cell membrane
    Outside covering

  47. Nucleus
    Pink Blob in Middle

  48. What cell parts are in plant cells but not animals
    Cell wall, Chloroplasts, Central Vacuole

  49. Name the 3 other parts of a prokaryotic cell
    • DNA, ribosomes, cell wall, membrane, flagella

  50. Structure that controls what enters and leaves cell in order to maintain homeostasis
    Cell membrane

  51. Jelly stuff that fills up cell

  52. The control center of the cell

  53. Outside barrier in plants and bacteria
    Cell Wall

  54. Which of the following DOES NOT require energy?
    a) Sodium potassium pump
    b) Active transport
    c) Endocytosis
    d) Osmosis

  55. ¨ Because of diffusion, the concentration of substances in the air
    a) Form clouds and rise
    b) Spread out evenly
    c) Condense and precipitate

  56. ¨ Diffusion is a type of
    a) Active transport
    b) Passive transport
    c) Endocytosis
    d) Facilitated diffusion

  57. Osmosis is diffusion of

  58. ¨ Diffusion cannot occur in:
    B.Boiling water
  59. isotonic
    Particles concentration is the same inside and out

  60. hypertonic
    fluid outside cell has higher particle concentration

  61. What happens to the cell in hypertonic solution

  62. hypotonic
    • fluid outside cell has lower particle concentraton

  63. What happens to the cell in hypotonic solution
    • cell swells

  64. H2o moves ____ the gradient
    • down toward most particles

  65. ¨ When food coloring disperses in a cup of water that is an example of
    a) Active transport
    b) Diffusion
    c) Endocytosis
    d) Osmosis

  66. Sugar molecules which are too big to move across cell membrane move by
    a) Exocytosis
    b) Osmosis
    c) Ion channels
    d) Facilitated diffusion

  67. ¨ When does transport require energy?
    a) When it goes with the concentration gradient
    b) When it goes from low to high concentration
    c) When it goes from high to low concentration
    d) Always

  68. ¨ When a cell uses energy to engulf something outside of the cell by surrounding it with it’s cell membrane it is called
    a) Endocytosis
    b) Phagocytosis
    c) Exocytosis
    d) Pinocytosis

  69. Who developed the theory of evolution by natural selection?
    • Charles Darwin

  70. What was the name of Darwins book?
    On the Origin of Species

  71. Natural selection
    • Traits best suited in a population increase

  72. Fitness
    • Surviving to reproduce

  73. Adaptation
    • Heritable characteristic that is well suited to environment

  74. Variation
    • Differences

  75. Vestigial Structures
    • Reduced in size, no longer seem to function

  76. Homologous Structures
    Similar structures

  77. What is artificial selection?
    Selecting organisms with desired traits to breed to increase those traits

  78. How did Artificial selection influence Darwin’s thinking?
    Demonstrates how heritable traits can change over time
  79. Give an example of an organism produced by artificial selection
    Corn, domesticated animals, flower varieties

  80. How does natural selection account for the diversity of organisms on the Galapagos islands?
    The island environments varied, so organisms with different traits were better suited for different islands.

  81. How did Darwin explain the similarity between the various finch species on the Galapagos islands & mainland S.America?
    They all shared a common ancestor from the mainland

  82. Traits increase or decrease in a population because the ___________________ increase or decrease.
    • alleles
  83. What is shown in this picture?Image Upload 6
    Homologous structures

  84. What is their significance?
    Similarities of structure among organisms supports their relatedness.

  85. How does the fossil record provide evidence of evolution?
    • Shows links between species
    • Direct evidence of past life forms
    • Older rock has different species than newer rock
    • Shows change in species over time

  86. Give some examples of vestigial structures
    Whale pelvis, human appendix, cave fish blind eyes, wings of flightless birds

  87. How does the presence of vestigial structures support evolution?
    These structures are remnants of once functioning structures in ancestors, demonstrating change in species over time

  88. What is adaptive radiation?
    • Single species evolves over a relatively
    • short time into several forms that live in different ways

  89. Give an example of adaptive radiation
    • Darwin’s finches, dogs

  90. What is speciation?
    • Process of forming a new species

  91. How can reproductive isolation lead to speciation?
    • populations that don’t interbreed can become increasingly different until they are distinct species

  92. What can lead to reproductive isolation?
    • Geographical isolation-physical separation
    • behavioral isolation-behaviors prevent mating
    • temporal isolation-timing prevents mating

  93. What is the difference between the two chromatids in a replicated chromosome?
    • None. They are identical

  94. What is the relationship between DNA, genes and chromosomes?
    A. DNA is packaged into genes, which contain segments called chromosomes.
    B. Genes are packaged into DNA, which contains chromosomes.
    C. DNA is packaged into chromosomes, which contain segments called genes.
    D. Chromosomes are packaged into DNA, which contains genes.
    • C. DNA is packaged into chromosomes, which contain segments called genes.
  95. diploid,

    Egg & sperm cells Body cells

  96. somatic

    Egg & sperm cells Body cells

  97. 46 chromosomes

    Egg & sperm cells Body cells

  98. mitosis

    Egg & sperm cells Body cells

  99. 2n

    Egg & sperm cells Body cells


  100. 1n,

    Egg & sperm cells Body cells

    Egg & sperm cells
  101. haploid,

    Egg & sperm cells Body cells

    egg and sperm cells
  102. gamete

    Egg & sperm cells Body cells

    egg and sperm cells
  103. 23 chromosomes

    Egg & sperm cells Body cells

    egg and sperm cells
  104. meiosis,

    Egg & sperm cells Body cells

    egg and sperm cells

  105. Body cells

    Egg & sperm cells Body cells

    egg and sperm cells

  106. If the parent cell had 8 chromosomes, how many chromosomes should be in each gamete?
    • 4

  107. Nondisjunction
    • failure of homologous chromosomes to separate

  108. Who was the Father of Genetics?
    • Gregor Mendel

  109. What were Gregory Mendals laws?
    • Law of dominance
    • Law of segregation
    • Law of independent assortment

  110. Law of dominance-
    one allele may show up over another

  111. Law of segregation
    • gametes receive one allele for each trait

  112. Law of independent assortment
    • the segregation of one allele doesn’t influence another

  113. Genotype ratio
    • Homo Dominate: Heterozygous: Homo Recessive

  114. Phenotype ratio
    • Dominate: Recessive

  115. polygenic
    • traits controlled by more than one gene.

  116. mRNA function
    • Carries DNA code to ribosome

  117. tRNA- function
    • Transfers amino acids to ribosome

  118. rRNA- function
    • Makes up ribosome

  119. What are the 4 steps in creating recombinant DNA?
    • Cut-cut DNA with restriction enzymes
    • Insert-into a vector (like a plasmid)
    • Clone-reproduce
    • Screen- check for successful recombination

  120. Eco RI Enzyme cuts what
    • G/AATTC

  121. Bam HI Enzyme cuts what
    • G/GATCC

  122. Hind III Enzyme cuts what
    • A/AGCTT

  123. Gel electrophoresis
    • can be used to sort fragments of DNA

  124. What process is shown in the picture?

    Image Upload 7
    • Gel electrophoresis
  125. GM organisms

    • Cheaper
    • More plentiful
    • Added nutrition
    • Higher yields

  126. GM organisms
    • Image Upload 8No long term testing
    • Disrupt natural ecosystems
    • Not affordable to small farms

  127. Label the parts of ATP
    • Phosphate
    • Adenine
    • Ribosome

  128. Where does the energy to make more ATP come from?
    • The breakdown of organic compounds (food)

  129. Which of the following cannot perform photosynthesis?
    A. Producers
    B. Autotrophs
    C. Heterotrophs
    D. Plants
    • C. Heterotrophs

  130. What is the equation for photosynthesis?
      1. Water + carbon dioxide + energy → oxygen + glucose

  131. Name and label the organelle that enables photosynthesis to occur.
    • Chloroplast

  132. What is the name of the green pigment inside the chloroplast?
    • Chlorophyll

  133. Which parts of the leaf contain chloroplasts? Name & label them.
    • Palisade mesophyll
    • Spongy mesophyll
    • Guard cells

  134. Which part of the leaf allows for gas exchange?
    • Stomata (stoma)

  135. In which organelle does cellular respiration occur?
    • mitochondria

  136. What is the equation for cellular respiration?
    • Oxygen + glucose → carbon dioxide + water + energy

  137. Which organisms perform cellular respiration?
    • All eukaryotic cells

  138. Aerobic means _________________. This type of respiration produces __________ energy per molecule of glucose.
    • With oxygen
    • more

  139. __________________ means without oxygen. This type of respiration produces ________ energy per molecule of glucose.
    • Anaerobic
    • less

  140. Another term for anaerobic respiration is _________________.
    • fermentation
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