The process where sediments are turned into sedimentary rocksis called
organisms are _____when they undergo permineralization and replacement
earthquakes that follow the main earthquake are called
____are large seismic generated sea waves that can do major destruction
segments on major faults where there was not been any refent earthquake activity are called seismic____. these areas have a high potential for a major earthquake.
the principle of ____________ states that "the present is the key to the past. it was proposed by ______
what should u do before, during and after an earthquake?
BEFORE: prepare by stabilazing big objects around the house, prepare emergency kits and come up with a plan
DURING: duk cover and hold
AFTER: call family member outside of the state to check in, localize gas meter and turn it off , aid those with serious wounds
Describe how the epicenter of an earthquake is located. Diagrams may be useful
the epicenter of an earthquake is located by the P waves and S waves. the P wavesis the strongest wave as it hits it creates little waves such as the S waves. Calculating the distance from each wave it helps locate the epicenter. need at least 3 triangular point
based on the videos and lecture comment on the earthwauke risk in each of the following cities a.) los angeles B) san francisco C) fresno. in your discussion discuss which faults near these cities create most of the potential risk for future seismicity?
A.) Los Angeles: high risk, Elysian Park, blind thrust
B) San Francisco- High risk, San Andreas fault blind thrust
C) Fresno : low risk, Hayward fault
The san andreas fault is at potential risk these cities for future seismicity
describe the difference between earthquakes intensity and earthquake magnitude. what does each one measure and on what scare are they measured?
the difference between intesity and earthquake magnitute is that intesity is damaged(mercalli scale) and magnitude is energy (richter scale) realesed. they are measured byt the seismic scale and seismograph.
the smallest unit of matter that retains the characteristic of an element.
ionic bonds occur when electrons?
are transfered between atoms
the most important group of rock formin minerals is the?
the man credited with developing the continental drift hypothesis is
Scientist called tentative explanation or "educated guess" a?
the tendency of a mineral to break along planes of weakness determined by its atomic structure is called?
the atomic mass of an element is equal to....
# of protons = # of neurons
minerals are classified into mineral groups based on
the main difference between oceanic and continetal crust is that continental crust is?
thicker, granitic (felsic) less dense
scientist's estimate that the earth is _____ years old.
which of the following describes the light refelction charachteristic of a mineral
the _____,which consist of thecrust and upper mantle, forms the relatevily cool,brittle plates ofplate tectonics
the resistance of a mineral to scratching or abrasion is called
Evidence of the big bang comes from the fact that light from distance galaxies appear to be___. this phenomena is explained by the Doppler Effect.
the earth's surface is protected from solar wind and cosmic radiation by ...
earth's magnetic field
subduction zones are commonly foundnear
deep sea trenches
oceanic-continental plates boundaries
the subdivision of the earth's that makes up most volume is the____ which is mainly composed of ____
mantle , peridotite
some early scientist thought that the earth was the cener of the Universe. This view was called a _____ model
the terrestrial planets of rocky planets are
List and describe 5 pieces of evidence that supports the theory of plate tectonics (and/or continental drift) (include some recent evidence)
1: acient glacier caps movement
2: acient coral reefs found in Africa and Other pats
3: fossils of animals who can't swim on other parts of world
4: jugsaw Puzzle with the continents that fit into place
5: different subduction areas located between Africa and SOuth america. Areas in India were the continent are pushing towards each other
What is a mineral? example
what is a rock? example
a: is any naturally occurring, inorganic substance, often additionally characterized by an exact crystal structure
b: mixture of naturally occurring substances, mainly minerals
Discuss how scientist's think the solar system formed?
scientist believe the solar system was formedby a supernova explosion that occuredin space. Different particles flew everywhere and gases. Seismic disc then formed by thesedifferent particles that formed a ball as it roated.Meteroid would hit the object andit later was compacted and everntually formedthe sun. soeof the excessive particles arre the explosion formed other planents
list 6 rocks and. or minerals and their common uses
1: granite:counter tops
2: copper: electrical wiring
3: diamond : to cut other diamonds and for mirrors
4: fluroide: tooth paste
5: sulfur: cosmetic or powder
6: pumice- rock to rubskin
Briefly define and describe the three major rock groups including which processes are involved in their formation. Give an example of one rock type for each group.
metamorphic- heat and pressure
sedimintary- compaction and cementary
igneous- cool and solidifcation of magma
_____ is molten rock that occurs at the surface
_____ is the earth system that consist of all the water on earth
compaction and cementation is called
_____ was the supercontinent that existed at the end of the Paleozoic and consisted of all the continets together
When oceanic crust is pushed under the continental crust and descends into the mantle, this process is called
the Hawaiian Islands are thought to have formed by volcanism associated with a
Minerals or rocks that contain Iron and Magnesium are saidto be _____in composition
streams enters standing water velocity deacres
Drainage basin (watershed
land areas that deain into a specific trunk
stream and divide
dendritic-branching “tree like” uniform
form a point uplift (mesa,volcano
controlled by jointed rocks
: alternating resistant and weak rocks
levees,Increase channel volumes, transmit
intensified flood problems downstream
hold water back from trunk streams
of saturation (phreatic zone),
formation, water not held as soil moisture percolates downward , water reaches
zone were all of the open spaces in sediment and rock are completl filled with
of aeration (vadose zone):
above the water table , includes the capillary fringe and the belt of soil