psychotherapies that attempt to uncover repressed childhood experiences that are thought to explain a patient’s current difficulties.
- a psychoanalytic technique used to explorethe unconscious by having patients reveal whatever thoughts, feelings, or images come to mind.
- a Freudian (psychoanalytic) method ofexploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comesto mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
dream analysis (interpretation)
According to Freud, he believe that areas of emotional concern repressed in waking life are sometimes expressed in symbolic form in dreams.
analysis of resistance
During psychoanlysis there are many signs that the client and therapist are making progress and working toward identifying the root of the problem. One sign is resistance, which is a somewhat disruptive response by the client to some topic they find sensitive. The reason it is sensitive is because it is the source or close to the source of the anxiety. For example, the client might make a off-handed remark or joke, claim they forgot the information, or pick a fight with the therapist. When they act in these types of counterproductive ways in response to the therapist addressing certain topics (i.e., the resistance), the therapist is getting closer to the root of the problem.
- an emotional reaction that occurs during psychoanalysis, in which the patient displays feelings and attitudes toward the analyst that were present in another significant relationship.
- a phenomenon where patients undergoing clinical therapy begin to transfer their feelings of a particular person in their lives to the therapist. For example, the patient may begin to feel the same feelings towards his or her therapist as the patient does for his or her lover. These types of feelings may be positive or negative. The therapist must be aware of this phenomenon and may even be able to use it to help the patient. For example, role playing with the patient.
Psychotherapies that assume that people that have the ability and freedom to lead rational lives and makes rational choices.
- a nondirective in which the therapist creates an accepting climate and shows empathy, freeing clients to be themselves and releasing their natural tendency toward self-actualization.
- Created by Carl Rogers, this form of humanistic therapy deals with the ways in which people perceive themselves consciously rather than having a therapist try to interpret unconscious thoughts or ideas. There are many different components and tools used in person-centered therapy including active listening, genuineness, paraphrasing, and more. But the real point is that the client already has the answers to the problems and the job of the therapist is to listen without making any judgements, without giving advice, and simply help the client feel accepted and understand their own feelings.
Congruence of selves
- a willingness to communicate with the client on a person-to-person basis rather than as an authority fugire who will pass judgement on and give advice to the client.
- Carl Rogers stated that the personality is like a triangle made up of the real self, the perceived self, and ideal self. According to Rogers, when there is a good fit between all three components, the person has congruence. This is a healthy state of being and helps people continue to progress toward self-actualization.
A treatment approach that is beased on the idea that abnormal behavior is learned and that applies the principles of operant conditiong, classical conditiong, and/or observational learning to eliminate inappropriate or maladaptive behaviors and replace them with more adaptive responses.
- An approach to therapy that uses learning principles to eliminate inappropriate or maladaptive behaviors and replace them with more adaptive responses.
- A type of behavioral therapy in which the principles of Operant Conditioning (reinforcement, punishments, etc.) are used to eliminate some type of unwanted, maladaptive, behavior. For example, a person may feel that they no longer want to smoke (the maladaptive behavior) and so the person is given a favorite piece of candy every time a cigarette is desired but refused. So, when the person wants a cigarette but does not have one, they get a piece of their favorite candy as a reward.
- A behavior therapy that is based on classical conditioning and used to treat fears by training clients in deep muscle relaxation and then having them confront a graduated series of anxiety-producing situations (real or imagined) until they can remain relaxed while confronting even the more feared situation.
- a form of treatment or therapy for phobias, fears, and aversions that people have. The premise is to reduce a person's anxiety responses through counterconditioning - a person who learned to be afraid of something is associating fear with that object or behavior, and the way to eliminate this is to teach the person to replace the feelings of anxiety with feelings of relaxation when the object or behavior is present. This approach is based on conditioning relaxation with the feared object or object of anxiety.
- For example: A) the fear - fear of dating women B) the client is asked to create a hierarchy of anxiety (what makes the client afraid, from least fear producing to most fear producing). 1) sitting next to a woman in class (least) 2) talking to a woman in class 3) walking with a woman on campus 4) calling a woman on the phone 5) eating a meal with a woman 6) going out on a date with a woman (most) C) the therapist then teaches the client some relaxation technique and then has the client use the relaxation technique when encountering (or just thinking about) the first level (sitting next to a woman in class). Once the client is comfortable with this, they move on to the next level, and so on until the client becomes relaxed and is able to go out on a date with a woman.
A behavior therapy based on classical conditioning and used to treat phobias by exposing clients to the feared object or event (or asking them to imagine it vividly) for an extended period, until their anxiety decreases.
A behavior therapy in which an aversion stimulus is paired with harmful or socially undesirable behavior until the behavior becomes associated with pain or discomfort.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy
- Therapies that assume maladaptive behavior can result from irrational thoughts, beliefs, and ideas.
- a classification of psychotherapeutic techniques that emphasize the important role that thinking (cognitive) plays in how we feel and act (behavioral). In other words, what we think of an event determines how we feel, which in turn
- influences how we behave. Our feelings are not dictated by the event, but are rather determined by the way we think about our situation.
- For example, if someone were passed over for a promotion, that person could think that it is because her boss didn't like her. This could lead to depression and a lack of motivation to work, which would in turn decrease her chances of being promoted in the future. From the Cognitive Behavioral perspective, her depression is caused by how she interpreted the event, and not by the actual event itself. This means that if she were to change her thinking, it could lead to a better result. Instead of thinking that her boss didn't like her, she could make an honest assessment of her performance and identify specific areas for improvement. Then she would be able to work on improving her weaknesses and increase her chances of being promoted next time.
- shown to be most effective for anxiety, depression, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT)
- a directive form of psychotheraphy, developed by Albert Ellis and designed to challenge cleint's irrational beliefs about themselves.
- Ellis illustrated REBT through Aaron Beck's ABC model. "A" is an activating event; "B" is a rational or irrational belief about the activating event and "C" is the consequence of the interaction of both A and B. If the person has irrational or faulty beliefs about the activating event, the consequence will be unhealthy negative emotions and behaviors that can lead to depression, anxiety, and other problems.
- Ellis helped clients by teaching them to dispute. This meant that clients should go back to the underlying beliefs and dispute if they were actually accurate. Ellis found that many of his client's underlying beliefs were cognitive distortions or untrue statements about themselves such as "I have to be perfect or I am a failure and everyone will reject me." Therefore, Ellis added a D and E to Beck's ABC model to formulate his REBT technique. D represented disputing cognitive distortions and E represented the effects of changing the faulty thinking to rational thinking. Once the clients disputed their faulty thoughts and exchanged them for truth statements about themselves, the resulting emotions and behaviors also changed and the clients felt better.
Beck’s cognitive therapy
- A therapy designed by Aaron Beck to help clients stop their negative thoughts as they occur and replace them with more objective thoughts.
- a form of therapy developed by Aaron Beck who suggested that our beliefs and perceptions influence our emotional responses to the world around us. According to cognitive therapy, our negative thought patterns (not unconscious conflicts or early life traumas as psychoanalysis suggests) cause depression, anxiety and some other mental disorders.
- helps patients by making them aware of these beliefs, how they produce so many problems, and then working to change these dysfunctional beliefs.
a therapy (drug therapy electroconvulsive therapy, or psychosurgery) that is based on the assumption that psychological disorders are symptoms of underlying physical problems.
- Brain surgery performed to alleviate serious psychological disorders or unbearable chronic pain.
- A method to cure psychological disorders through brain surgery.
- not done much at all anymore (if at all), it is a procedure that was once used to reduce uncontrollably violent or emotional people. Technically this is a type of psychosurgery (surgery for psychological purpose that destroys brain tissue to change a person's behavior) in which the nerves that connect the frontal lobes to the parts of the brain that control emotions are severed.
- It has been used at first because the procedure was considered a tremendous contribution but it became apparent that this treatment left patients in a severely deteriorated condition. The devastating after effects of the lobotomy and similar operations led to their discontinuation.
- one procedure electrodes are used to destroy the cingulum, a small bundle of nerves connecting the cortex to the emotional centers of the brain.
- been helpful for some extreme cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
ElectroconvulsiveTherapy (ECT) (also known as shock therapy)
- A biological therapy in which an electric current is passed through the right hemisphere of the brain; usually reserved for patients with severe depression who are suidical.
- a type of biomedical therapy in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of a patient in order to produce a chemical change. This treatment, although not practiced commonly, is most often used to treat severely depressed people, and has been shown to work quite effectively. ECT fell out of favor and was perceived as cruel and inhuman, but in recent years has regained some popularity.
the study of drugs used for psychological treatments. These drugs can affect moods, sensations, consciousness, and behavioral patterns. These drugs are also called psychotropic medications.
- a drug that act as mood elevators for people with severe depression and are also prescribed to treat some anxiety disorders.
- medicines that relieve symptoms of depressive disorders.
- tricyclics (amitriptyline, imipramine), SSRIs also know as "selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors" (fluoxetine, clomipramine), and MAOI (monoamine oxidase inhibitors).
SSRIs also know as "selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors"
- second-generation antidepressants
- blocks the reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin. increasing its availability at the synapses in the brain.
- Brand names for antidepressants are Celexa, Paxil, Prozac, Zoloft.
- Treats depressed mood or anxiety symptoms.
- first-generation antidepressants
- works against depression by blocking the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into the axon terminals, thus enhancing the action of theres neurotransmitter in the synapse.
- brand names for antidepressants are Elavil, Tofranil
- treats depressed mood or anxiety symptoms
MAOI (monoamine oxidase inhibitors)
- third-generation antidepressants
- by blocking the action of an enzyme that breaks down norepinephrine and serotonin in the synapse, MAO inhibitors increase the availability of there neurotransmitter.
- brand names for antidepressant are Ensam, Nardil, Parnate, Marplan.
- treats depressed mood or anxiety symptoms
- medicines that calm and relax people with excessive anxiety, nervousness, or tension, or for short-term control of social phobia disorder of specific phobia disorder.
- bendiazapines like Valium & Xanax.
- used to primarily to treat anxiety.
- effective in treating panic disoder and generalized anxiety disorder.
- brand names for antianxiety are Librium, Valium, Xanax.
- treats anxiety symptoms.
Antipsychotic drugs (neuroleptics)
- a drug used to control severe psychotic symptoms, such as delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and disorganized behavior, by inhibiting dopamine activity; also known as neuroleptics.
- atypical neuroleptics (clozapine, risperidone, olanzipine)
- prescribed primarily for schizophrenia.
- to control hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech, and disorganized behavior.
- brand names for antipsychotic are Compazine, Mellaril, Stelazine, Thorazine.
- treats hallucinations and delusion symptoms
- can treat not only the positive symptoms of schizophrenia but also the negative symptoms, leading to marked improvement in patients' quality of life.
- target both dopamine and serotonin receptors.
- brand names for antipsychotic are Clozaril, Olanzapine, Risperdal.
- treats hallucinations, delusions, negative symptoms of schizophrenia.