1. Sedendtary
    Staying in one place -- like the Aztecs, Incas, or the mound builders near the Mississippi River
  2. Semi-sedentary
    Moving for part of each year
  3. Slash-and-burn
    Chopping down trees, burning down others -- women farmed, men hunted
  4. 50 million to 100 million
    Estimates about how many people were living in the Americas in 1492
  5. Incas
    Lived in the Andes, had a network of roads and bridges -- nonliterate
  6. Mayans
    Centered in southern Mexico, built large pyramids and used engineering and astronomy
  7. Aztecs
    Warlike people who took over central Mexico in the 1400s
  8. Religious Misunderstandings
    Europeans got mad at natives for disrespecting Chrisitian images and rituals and for human sacrifices
  9. War
    Europeans saw it as total destruction of the enemy
  10. Gender
    Native women farmed and had political power, men hunted
  11. Cortes
    1519-1521 -- fought the Aztecs with native allies -- wanted lots and lots of gold -- built Mexico City on the ruins of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan, helped by smallpox
  12. Pizarro
    1530s -- conquered the Incas, helped by smallpox
  13. Encomienda
    Gave Spanish settlers the right to demand labor from natives in the area -- similar to what the Aztecs and Incas did
  14. Unfree labor
    Serfdom in Eastern Europe, Slavery in Africa and the Americas -- involved peasants in Eastern Europe and Africans and Native Americans in Africa and the Americas
  15. Columbian Exchange
    Exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and people between the Americas and Europe/Africa
  16. Smallpox, plague, measles, yellow fever, pneumonia, tuberculosis, diptheria, influenza
    Some of the diseases brought over by the Europeans in the Columbian Exchange
  17. European-Native American trade
    Europeans wanted deerskins, beaver belts/pelts, and slaves
  18. Land
    Europeans thought it could be privately owned
  19. Christianity
    Europeans wanted Native Americans to convert
  20. Client chiefs
    People within Native American communities who were favored by Europeans and were given lots of goods to build alliances within their communities (so that they would support the Europeans)
  21. Wampum
    Shells and beads used by Native Americans to record meetings and to express messages
  22. Praying towns
    Towns in New England where Native Americans who had converted to Christianity lived
  23. Oral History
    The primary way Native Americans kept their stories and traditions alive
  24. Metis
    Children with mixed French and Native America heritage -- they served as intermediaries between the two groups
  25. Protestant
    Christianity practiced by the English (they didn't like Catholics at the time)
  26. Catholic
    Christianity practiced by the French and Spanish (they didn't like Protestants at the time)
  27. Jamestown
    Founded in 1607, first permanent English settlement in North America, in the Chesapeake
  28. John Smith
    Lead Jamestown in the early years, harsh leader who made settlers farm (they were lazy!)
  29. Joint-stock company
    Like a corporation -- investors own shares
  30. Headright system
    For every settler a colonist brought over, he would receive 50 acres of land in Virginia
  31. Tobacco
    Virginia's cash crop -- this is how the colony makes its money
  32. Indentured servants
    Laborers who paid for their trips by working off their debts -- usually worked for five to seven years
  33. Oligarchy
    System in which a small group of people hold power -- this definitely happened in the Chesapeake
  34. Maryland
    Colony set up by Lord Baltimore for Catholics to control
  35. Chesapeake Social Life
    Unbalanced gender ratios, short lives, lots of remarriages -- maleria, dystentary, bad water -- all causes
  36. West Indies
    Sugar plantations -- tried indentured servants, moved to slaves after 1660 -- lots of deaths
  37. 1619
    First Africans in Virginia -- some were slaves, some were servants
  38. Sachem
    Native American leaders in New England American Indian communities
  39. Puritans
    Religious group that founded Massachusetts in 1629
  40. Predestination
    Idea that people are either going to heaven or hell, and there's nothing you can do to change where you're going -- Puritans believed this
  41. Lumber, fish, grain
    Main trading items for Massachusetts
  42. Puritan Family Life
    Long lives, tight-knit families, not a lot of land
  43. Anne Hutchinson
    Puritan woman who challenged the church in 1636 -- banished to Rhode Island in 1638
  44. Pequot War
    War in 1637 over fertile land in Connecticut
  45. Mercantilism
    Idea that power comes from a country's wealth -- More money = more power
  46. Navigation Acts
    Laws passed by England that regulated trade between England and its colonies -- kept the goods within the English empire
  47. Navigation Act of 1660
    Said all colonial trade had to be on English ships
  48. Enumerated commodities
    Special products that had to be shipped directly to England or another English colony -- sugar, tobacco
  49. Mourning Wars
    Wars fought by Iroquois to take captives and replace dead family members
  50. Covenant Chain of Peace
    Peace alliance between the Iroquois and New York
  51. Praying Towns
    Towns in Massachusetts where Christian Indians lived
  52. Metacom's War -- 1675
    Fought over religion and land -- English used the Mohawks to fight against the Narragansetts and Wampanoags -- Puritans win
  53. Virginia and American Indians
    Testy relations -- many settlers want land, and the American Indians have land
  54. Bacon's Rebellion
    Virginia settlers mad at the governor for protecting the AI, also mad at him for raising taxes
  55. Nathanial Bacon
    Leader of the rebellion, dislikes AI (kills all he can find), dies of the bloody flux (it is as painful as it sounds)
  56. Results of Bacon's rebellion
    More land for settlers, fewer indentured servants, more African slaves
  57. Middle Ground
    System of negotiation between the French and Algonquin-speaking Indians in the Great Lakes region from 1680s to 1750s. It relied heavily on gifts and broke down when the French stopped giving the native Americans enough gifts and the British had better and cheaper goods.
  58. Pueblo Revolt
    Happened when Pueblo Indians revolted against the Spanish because the Spanish priests were too harsh on them about converting. The Pueblos burned down churches and practiced their previous religion.
  59. Great Awakening
    Religious revival in the colonies during the 1730s and 1740s that created more interest in living a more devout religious life. Many colleges were founded as a result of this event as people wanted better trained ministers.
  60. King George's War
    1744-1748 -- Fight between Spain & France vs. Britain -- colonies were involved and the colonists captured the French fort at Louisbourg.
  61. Ohio Valley
    Area that both the French and the British wanted to have -- their fight over this area started the French & Indian War
  62. French & Indian War
    War between France & Great Britain in North America from 1754-1763 -- the British won and took over Canada
  63. William Pitt
    British prime minister starting in 1757 -- he got the colonists and the British to work together
  64. Battle of Quebec
    Won by the British in 1759, meant that Britain could totally cut off trade to the French lands in the Midwest
  65. Peace of Paris -- 1763
    France is out of North America, British take over Canada, Spain takes over land west of the Mississippi River
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