Information & Technology

  1. Expert system
    A software package that is used with a large set of organized data that presents the computer as an expert on a particular topic
  2. Primary Storage
    Computer memory which is used to store programs that must be accessed immediately by the CPU
  3. Output Device
    1 example = a printer
  4. Input Device
    examples include a mouse and keyboard
  5. What is generally included in an Office Suite?
    Databases, spreadsheets, word processing
  6. Operating System
    Controls the execution of computer programs and may provide various services
  7. Parts of a CPU
    • - Control Unit
    • - Arithmetic Unit
    • - Logic Unit
  8. MIPS stands for?
    Millions of instructions per second
  9. Enterprise Resource Planning
    ERP software is a form of applications software that provides relatively complete information systems for a large and medium size organizations
  10. Value Added Network
    A privately owned network whose services are sold to the public.
  11. ROM and RAM
    - Read Only Memory is memory whose contents can be accessed and read but cannot be changed

    - Random Access Memory is the most common computer memory
  12. Algorithm
    A set of step by step procedures used to accomplish a task
  13. Compiler
    Decodes instructions written in a higher order language and produces an assembly language program
  14. GUI
    Graphical User Interface
  15. Address (in the context of a spreadsheet)
    row and column coordinates
  16. Most current computers process data using what format?
    Digital:represent information by numerical (binary) digits
  17. What are 1st and 2nd generation programming languages
    1st: Instructions in terms of 1's and 0's

    2nd: Instructions relatively close to human language
  18. Data Definition Language (DDL)
    Data Manipulation Language (DML)
    Data Control Language (DCL)
    Data Query Language (DQL)
    • DDL: Used to define (i.e. determine) the database
    • DCL: Used to specify privileges and security rules
    • DML: Provides programers with a facilty to update the database
    • DQL: Used for ad hoc queries
  19. Joining
    The combining of one or more tables based on matching criteria
  20. Why is user acceptance testing more important in an object oriented development process than in a traditional environment?
    All objects in a class inherit the properties of the hierarchy, which means that changes to one object may affect other objects, which increases the importance of user acceptance testing to verify correct functioning of the whole system
  21. Normalization
    • A process of database design (not distribution)
    • - sperating the database into logical tables for easier user processing
  22. Methods for distributing a relational database across multiple servers
    Snapshot:making a copy of the database for distribution

    • Replication:creating and maintaining replica copies at multiple locations
    • Fragmentation:separating the database into parts and distributing where they are needed
  23. OCR
    Optical Character Recognition: convert a paper document into a computer file
  24. Computer-output-to-microform
    used for frequent access to archived documents such as canceled checks in banking applications
  25. Batch Computer System
    • - Batch programs are run periodically and thereby result in delays in processing; accordingly detection of misstatements may be delayed
    • - Process sequentially against a master file
    • - Key punching is followed by machine processing
    • - numerous batches ordinarily results in numerous printouts
  26. Edit Checks
    • - Used to screen incoming data against established standards of validity, with data that pass all edit checks as "valid" and then processed
    • - Will ordinarily create an output file of rejected transactions
  27. Grandfather-father-son
    A method for storing previous generations of master file data that are continuously updated. The son is the current file, the father is a copy of the frile from the previous cycle, and the grandfather is a copy of the file from the cylce before that one.
  28. WAN
    A Wide Area Network is used to span a wide geographical space to link together portions of an organization
  29. Protocol
    Set of Rules for exchanging data between 2 systems
  30. Methods through which to input data
    • - Magnetic tape reader
    • - Point-of-sale recorders
    • - Touch sensitive screens
  31. End-user computing
    • - Involves individual users performing the developent and execution of computer applications in a decentralized manager
    • - Most likely to be executed on a personal computer
  32. Distributed System
    Involves networked computers processing transactions for a single (or related) database
  33. Cryptographic Devices
    Protect data in transmission over communications lines
  34. Asynchronous Modems
    - Handle data streams from peripheral devices to a central processor
  35. Data Maping
    The process of selecting the appropriate data fields from various application databases and passing them to EDI translation software
  36. Translation
    Involves the actual modification of the data into a standard format that is used by the EDI system.
  37. Hot and Cold Site
    • Hot:a site that is already configured to meet a user's requirements
    • Cold:a facility that provides everything necessary to quickly install computer equipment but doesn't have the computers installed
  38. Hash Total
    A control total where the total is meaningless for financial purposes, but has some meaning for process purposes
  39. Limit Test
    Establishes an upper and/or lower limit as reasonable, with results outside of those limits indicated.
Card Set
Information & Technology
Information and Technology section of BEC section of CPA exam