1. Separatist vs. non-Separatist Puritans
    Radical Calvinists against the Church of England
  2. Northwest Passage
    believed to provide shortcut from Atlantic to Pacific, searched for by Giovanni de Verrazano for Francis I in the race to Asian wealth
  3. Conversion Experience
    required of members of the Puritan Church
  4. Social Reciprocity
    society naturally punishes criminals indiscriminantly
  5. Church of England
    Protestant church led by the king of England, independent of Catholic Church
  6. Atlantic slave trade
    often debtors sold to slave traders by African kings seeking riches
  7. Jamestown
    first permanent English settlement in the Americas (1607), along James River
  8. John Smith
    introduced work ethic to Jamestown colony, sanitation, diplomat to local Native American tribes
  9. Pocahontas
    key to English-Native American relationship, died in England in 1617
  10. Mayflower Compact
    foundation for self-government laid out by the first Massachusetts settlers before arriving on land
  11. John Winthrop
    Calvinist, devised concept of "city on a hill" ("A Model of Christian Charity")
  12. "City on a Hill"
    exemplary Christian community, rich to show charity, held to Calvinistic beliefs
  13. Indentured servants
    settlers to pay the expenses of a servant's voyage and be granted land for each person they brought over
  14. Maryland Act of Religious Toleration (1649)
    mandated the toleration of all Christian denominations in Maryland, even though Maryland was founded for Catholics (but majority was protestant)
  15. King James I, King Charles
    reluctant to give colonists their own government, preferred to appoint royal governors
  16. William Penn and the Quakers
    settled in Pennsylvania, believed the "Inner Light" could speak through any person and ran religious services without ministers
  17. Roger Williams
    challenged New Englanders to completely separate Church from State, as the State would corrupt the church
  18. Anne Hutchinson
    challenged New England Calvinist ministers' authority, as they taught the good works for salvation of Catholicism
  19. The Half-Way Covenant
    New Englanders who did not wish to relate their conversion experiences could become half-way saints so that their children would be able to have the opportunity to be saints
  20. Bacon's Rebellion
    rebels felt the governor of Virginia failed to protect the frontier from the Native Americans
  21. Navigation Acts
    only English and American ships allowed to colonial ports
  22. Mercantilism
    ensured trade with mother country, nationalism
  23. Charles II, James II
    tried to rule as absolute monarchs without using Parliament, little to no sympathy for colonial legislatures
  24. William and Mary
    ended the Dominion of New England, gave power back to colonies
  25. Dominion of New England
    combined Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Plymouth (and later Jersey and New York) into one "supercolony" governed by Sir Edmond Andros, a "supergovernor"
  26. The Glorious Revolution
    William and Mary kicked James II out of England (exiled into France), allowed more power to the legislatures
  27. James Oglethorpe
    established colony of Georgia as a place for honest debtors
  28. The Enlightenment
    emphasis on human reason, logic, and science (acquired, not nascent, knowledge)
  29. Benjamin Franklin
    connected the colonies to Britain, opposed to unnecessary unfair taxation
  30. The Great Awakening
    began by Edwards to return to Puritanism, increased overall religious involvement, gave women more active roles in religion, more and more ministers sprouted up throughout the country
  31. Deists
    believed that God created the universe to act through natural laws
  32. George Whitefield
    powerful speaker, toured the country and inspired many into Christianity
  33. Jonathan Edwards
    Puritan minister, led revivals, stressed immediate repentance, wrote "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"
  34. New Lights vs. Old Lights
    New Lights brought new ideas, rejected by Old Lights
  35. Albany Plan of Union
    colonies proposed colonial confederation under lighter British rule (crown-appointed president, "Grand Council")
  36. French and Indian War
    French threat at the borders was no longer present, therefore the colonies didn't need English protection
  37. Proclamation of 1763
    prohibited settlements west of Appalachian, restriction on colonial growth
  38. Salutary Neglect
    Parliament took minor actions in the colonies, allowing them to experiment with and become accustomed to self-government, international trade agreements
  39. Writs of Assistance
    search warrants on shipping to reduce smuggling
  40. Townshend Act (1767)
    similar to Navigation
  41. Sugar Act
    increased tariff on sugar (and other imports), attempted to harder enforce existing tariffs
  42. Stamp Act
    taxes on all legal documents to support British troops, not approved by colonists through their representatives
  43. Stamp Act Congress
    held in New York, agreed to not import British goods until Stamp Act was repealed
  44. Virginia Resolves
    "no taxation without representation," introduced by Patrick Henry
  45. Currency Act
    prohibited colonies from issuing paper money, destabilized colonial economy
  46. Virtual Representation
    all English subjects are represented in Parliament, including those not allowed to vote
  47. The Loyal Nine
    group of Bostonians in opposition to the Stamp Act, sought to drive stamp distributors from the city
  48. Sons of Liberty
    organized and controlled resistance against Parliamentary acts in less violent ways (strength of martyrdom), advocated nonimportation
  49. Declaratory Act
    allowed Parliament to completely legislate over the colonies, limited colonists' say
  50. Boston Massacre
    British soldiers shot into crowd of snowball fight
  51. Committees of Correspondence
    committees appointed from different colonies to communicate on matters
  52. Tea Act (1773)
    intended to save British East India Company from bankruptcy, could sell directly to consumers rather than through wholesalers (lowered prices to compete with smuggled tea)
  53. Boston Tea Party
    peaceful destruction of British tea in Boston Harbor by colonists disguised as Indians
  54. Quebec Acts
    former French subjects in Canada allowed to keep Catholicism, while American colonists expected to participate in the Church of England
  55. Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts)
    in reaction to the Boston Tea Party
  56. Suffolk Resolves
    organize militia, end trade with Britain, refuse to pay taxes to Britain
  57. Olive Branch Petition
    politely demanded from the king a cease�fire in Boston, repeal of Coercive Acts,. guarantee of American rights
  58. Thomas Paine, Common Sense
    stressed to the American people British maltreatment and emphasize a need for revolution
  59. George Washington
    American commander-in-chief
  60. Whigs (Patriots)
    most numerous in New England, fought for independence
  61. Tories (Loyalists)
    fought for return to colonial rule, usually conservative (educated and wealthy
  62. British strengths and weaknesses
    British citizenship outnumbered colonies', large navy and professional army
  63. Colonial strengths and weaknesses
    fair amount of troops, short guerilla tactics, strong leaders (Washington)
  64. Battle of Saratoga
    American general Horatio Gates was victorious over British general Burgoyne
  65. Valley Forge
    scarce supplies (food and clothing), army motivated by von Steuben
  66. Battle of Yorktown
    last major battle
  67. Treaty of Paris (1783)
    full American independence, territory west of Appalachian ceded to America, loyalists to be compensated for seized property, fishing rights off of Newfoundland
  68. American society during the Revolution
    British-occupied cities, new governments, fighting by any with experience, loaned money, African-Americans and Native Americans involved
  69. Articles of Confederation
    states joined for foreign affairs, Congress reigned supreme (lacked executive and judicial), one vote per state, 2/3 vote for bills, unanimous for amendments
  70. Virginia Statute on Religious Freedom (1786)
    foundation for First Amendment, offered free choice of religion, not influenced by state
  71. Northwest Ordinance of 1787
    defined process for territories to become states (population reached 60,000), forbade slavery in the new territories
  72. Alexander Hamilton
    pushed for Assumption (federal government to assume state debts), pushed creation of the National Bank (most controversial), loose interpretation of Constitution, leader of Federalist Party
  73. James Madison
    strong central government, separation of powers, "extended republic"
  74. Shays's Rebellion
    mistreated farmers, fear of monocracy, forced people to think about central government
  75. Connecticut Compromise
    advocated by Roger Sherman, proposed two independently-voting senators per state and representation in the House based on population
  76. Virginia Plan
    bicameral congressional representation based on population
  77. New Jersey Plan
    equal representation in unicameral congress
  78. Commerce Compromise
    congress could tax imports but not exports
  79. Federalism
    strong central government provided by power divided between state and national governments, checks and balances, amendable constitution
  80. Changes in the Constitution from the Articles
    stronger union of states, equal and population-based representation, simple majority vote (with presidential veto), regulation of foreign and interstate commerce, execution by president, power to enact taxes, federal courts, easier amendment process
  81. Elastic Clause ("necessary and proper")
    gives Congress the power to pass laws it deems necessary to enforce the Constitution
  82. Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists
    Anti-Federalists wanted states' rights, bill of rights, unanimous consent, reference to religion, more power to less-rich and common people
  83. The Federalist Papers
    written anonymously by Hamilton, Jay, and Madison
  84. Judiciary Act of 1789
    established federal district courts that followed local procedures, Supreme Court had final jurisdiction
  85. Bill of Rights
    protected rights of individual from the power of the central government
  86. Bank of the United States
    Hamilton's plan to solve Revolutionary debt, Assumption highly controversial, pushed his plan through Congress, based on loose interpretation of Constitution
  87. Report on Public Credit
    proposed by Hamilton to repair war debts
  88. Report on Manufactures (tariffs)
    Hamilton praised efficient factories with few managers over many workers, promote emigration, employment opportunities, applications of technology
  89. Strict vs. Loose interpretation of the Constitution
    loose interpretation allowed for implied powers of Congress (such as the National Bank), strict interpretation implied few powers to Congress
  90. Whiskey Rebellion
    Western Pennsylvanian farmers' violent protest against whiskey excise tax, Washington sent large army to put down revolt, protests to be limited to non-violent
  91. Citizen Genet
    Edmond Genet contributed to polarization of the new nation by creating his American Foreign Legion in the south, which was directed to attack Spanish garrisons in New Orleans and St. Augustine
  92. Impressment
    British Navy would take American sailors and force them to work for Britain
  93. Jay's Treaty
    provided for evacuation of English troops from posts in the Great Lakes
  94. Nullification
    states could refuse to enforce the federal laws they deemed unconstitutional
  95. Federalists and Republicans
    the two political parties that formed following Washington's presidency
  96. Washington's Farewell Address
    warned against permanent foreign alliances and political parties, called for unity of the country, established precedent of two-term presidency
  97. Neutrality Proclamation of 1793
    response to French attempts for alliance with US
  98. XYZ Affair
    French foreign minister (Talleyrand) demanded bribe in order to meet with American peace commission, made Adams unpopular among the people
  99. Alien and Sedition Acts
    meant to keep government unquestioned by critics, particularly of the Federalists
  100. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
    argued that states had the right to determine whether or not the laws passed by Congress were constitutional
  101. 12th Amendment
    required separate and distinct ballots for presidential and vice presidential candidates
  102. Second Great Awakening
    emphasis on personal salvation, emotional response, and individual faith
  103. Election of 1800
    Adams, Jefferson, and Burr: Adams lost, Jefferson and Burr tied, Hamilton convinced other Federalists to vote for Jefferson to break the tie
  104. Barbary Pirates
    North African Muslim rulers solved budget problems through piracy and tributes in Mediterranean, obtained fees from most European powers
  105. Midnight judges
    judges appointed to Supreme Court by Adams in the last days of his presidency to force them upon Jefferson, Marshall among those appointed
  106. Marbury v. Madison
    John Marshall declared that the Supreme Court could declare federal laws unconstitutional
  107. Lewis and Clark expedition
    Meriwether Lewis and William Clark sent by Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Territory on "Voyage of Discovery"
  108. Non-Intercourse Act
    sought to encourage domestic American manufacturing
  109. Macon's Bill No. 2
    president has power to cease trade with any foreign country that violated American neutrality
  110. Embargo Act (1807)
    prohibited exports (and imports) based in American ports, most controversial Jefferson legislation
  111. War hawks
    Clay and Calhoun, eager for war with Britain (War of 1812)
  112. Henry Clay and the American System
    Henry Clay aimed to make the US economically independent from Europe (e.g., support internal improvements, tariff protection, and new national bank)
  113. John C. Calhoun
    opposed Polk's high-handedness, avid Southern slave-owner (right to own property, slaves as property)
  114. William Henry Harrison
    military hero from War of 1812
  115. Battle of Tippecanoe
    decisive victory in the War of 1812 by Harrison over Tecumseh, used in Harrison's campaign for presidency
  116. Hartford Convention
    December 1814, opposed War of 1812, called for one-term presidency, northern states threatened to secede if their views were left unconsidered next to those of southern and western states, supported nullification, end of Federalist Party
  117. Essex case
    Federalist cause leading up to Hartford Convention
  118. Era of Good Feelings
    Monroe presidency, national unity behind Monroe, post-war boom (foreign demand for cotton, grain, and tobacco), Depression of 1819 (cheap British imports, tightened credit, affected West the most)
  119. James Monroe
    provided country with a break from partisan politics, Missouri Compromise, issued Monroe Doctrine
  120. Missouri Compromise (1820)
    Maine as free state, Missouri as slave state, slavery prohibited north of 36�30'
  121. Tallmadge Amendment
    no further introduction of slaves into Missouri, all children born to slaves to become free at 25
  122. Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817
    agreement between US and Britain to remove armed fleets from the Great Lakes
  123. Adams-Onis Treaty
    remainder of Florida sold by Spain to US, boundary of Mexico defined
  124. Monroe Doctrine
    Europeans should not interfere with affairs in Western Hemisphere, Americans to stay out of foreign affairs
  125. Panic of 1819
    Bank tightened loan policies, depression rose throughout the country, hurt western farmers greatly
  126. Election of 1824
    "corrupt bargain" and backroom deal for JQ Adams to win over Jackson
  127. Tariff of Abominations
    under JQ Adams, protectionist tariff, South considered it the source of economic problems, made Jackson appear to advocate free trade
  128. Jackson's Presidency
    focused on the "Common Man
  129. Transportation Revolution
    river traffic, road building, canals (esp. Erie), rise of NYC
  130. Erie Canal
    goods able to be transferred from New York to New Orleans by inland waterways
  131. National Road
    part of transportation revolution, from Cumberland MD to Wheeling WVa, toll road network
  132. Indian Removal Act
    Jackson was allowed to relocate Indian tribes in the Louisiana Territory
  133. Five Civilized Tribes
    Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, and Seminoles
  134. "Trail of Tears"
    Cherokee tribe forced to move from southern Appalachians to reservations in current-day Oklahoma, high death toll
  135. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
    first attempt of Cherokees to gain complete sovereign rule over their nation
  136. Worcester v. Georgia
    Georgia cannot enforce American laws on Indian tribes
  137. Spoils System
    "rotation in office
  138. Kitchen Cabinet
    Jackson used personal friends as unofficial advisors over his official cabinet
  139. Lowell mill/system
    young women employed by Lowell's textile company, housed in dormitories
  140. Cotton Gin
    allowed for faster processing of cotton, invented by Eli Whitney, less need for slaves
  141. Nullification Controversy
    southern states (especially South Carolina) believed that they had the right to judge federal laws unconstitutional and therefore not enforce them
  142. South Carolina Exposition and Protest
    written by Calhoun, regarding tariff nullification
  143. Bank of the United States
    destroyed by Jackson on the grounds that it was unconstitutional and too much power for a federal institution
  144. Pet banks
    small state banks set up by Jackson to keep federal funds out of the National Bank, used until funds were consolidated into a single treasury
  145. Independent Treasury Bill
    government would hold its revenues rather than deposit them in banks, thus keeping the funds away from private corporations
  146. Specie
    paper money
  147. Maysville Road Veto
    vetoed by Jackson on the count that government funds for the Maysville Road would only benefit one state
  148. Liberty Party
    supported abolition, broke off of Anti-Slavery Society
  149. Whig Party
    believed in expanding federal power on economy, encouraged industrial development
  150. John C. Calhoun
    opposed Polk's high-handedness, avid Southern slave owner
  151. Marshall Court (all cases)
    Marbury v. Madison (judicial review), McChulloch v. Maryland (loose Constitutional interpretation, constitutionality of National Bank, states cannot control government agencies), Gibbons v. Ogden (interstate commerce controlled by Congress), Fletcher v. Peck (valid contract cannot be broken, state law voided), Dartmouth College v. Woodward (charter cannot be altered without both parties' consent)
  152. Second Great Awakening
    religious movements, traveling "meetings," rise of Baptist and Methodist ministries
  153. Burned-Over District
    heavily evangelized to the point there were no more people left to convert to other religions, upstate New York, home to the beginning of Smith's Mormonism movement
  154. Horace Mann
    worked to reform the American education system, abolitionist, prison/asylum reform with Dorothea Dix
  155. William Lloyd Garrison
    editor of The Liberator (strongly abolitionist newspaper calling for immediate abolition of slavery), fought for feminist movement ("Am I not a woman and a sister" picture of slave woman)
  156. Frederick Douglass
    runaway slave, well-known speaker on the condition of slavery, worked with Garrison and Wendell Phillips, founder of The North Star
  157. Seneca Falls Convention of 1848
    for women's rights, organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, modeled requests after the Declaration of Independence
  158. Elizabeth Cady Stanton
    organized Seneca Falls Convention, founded (with Anthony) National Women Suffrage Organization
  159. Hudson River School
    taught American landscape painting rather than Classical subjects
  160. Transcendentalism
    founded by Emerson, strong emphasis on spiritual unity (God, humanity, and nature), literature with strong references to nature
  161. Ralph Waldo Emerson
    in Brook Farm Community, literary nationalist, transcendentalist (nascent ideas of God and freedom), wrote "The American Scholar"
  162. Henry David Thoreau
    in Brook Farm Community, lived in seclusion for two years writing Walden and On Civil Disobedience, proved that man could provide for himself without materialistic wants
  163. Nat Turner's Rebellion
    led a slave rebellion in Virginia, attacked many whites, prompted non-slaveholding Virginians to consider emancipation
  164. Yeoman Farmers
    family farmers who hired out slaves for the harvest season, self-sufficient, participated in local markets alongside slave owners
  165. Underground Railroad
    network of safe houses of white abolitionists used to bring slaves to freedom
  166. Harriet Tubman
    worked alongside Josiah Henson to make repeated trips to get slaves out of the South into freedom
  167. Angelina and Sarah Grimke
    fought for women's rights and abolition, "Men and women are CREATED EQUAL!"
  168. Dorothea Dix
    worked towards asylums for the mentally insane, worked alongside Mann
  169. John Humphrey Noyes/Oneida Community
    John Noyes, New York
  170. New Harmony
    first Utopian society, by Robert Owen
  171. "Wage slaves"
    northern factory workers who were discarded when too old to work (unlike the slaves who were still kept fed and clothed in their old age)
  172. Nativism
    anti-immigrant, especially against Irish Catholics
  173. The Alamo
    Mexicans held siege on the Alamo (in San Antonio), Texans lost great number of people, "Remember the Alamo"
  174. Stephen Austin
    American who settled in Texas, one of the leaders for Texan independence from Mexico
  175. James K. Polk
    "dark horse" Democratic candidate
  176. Oregon and "Fifty-four Forty or Fight!"
    Oregon Territory owned jointly with Britain, Polk severed its tie to Britain, forced to settle for compromise south of 49� rather than 54�40'
  177. Manifest Destiny
    stated the United States was destined to span the breadth of the entire continent with as much land as possible, advocated by Polk
  178. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    acquired Mexican Cession (future California, Arizona, and New Mexico)
  179. Wilmot Proviso
    slavery to be barred in all territory ceded from Mexico
  180. California Gold Rush
    gold discovery in Sutter's Mill in 1848 resulted in huge mass of adventurers in 1849, led to application for statehood, opened question of slavery in the West
  181. William Seward
    Secretary of State under Lincoln and Johnson
  182. Compromise of 1850
    (1) California admitted as free state, (2) territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico, (3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (4) federal assumption of Texas debt, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6) new fugitive slave law
  183. Fugitive Slave Act
    runaway slaves could be caught in the North and be brought back to their masters (they were treated as property � running away was as good as stealing)
  184. Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom's Cabin
    depicted the evils of slavery (splitting of families and physical abuse)
  185. Know-Nothing (American) Party
    opposed to all immigration, strongly anti-Catholic
  186. Popular Sovereignty
    the principle that a state should decide for itself whether or not to allow slavery
  187. Kansas-Nebraska Act
    territory split into Kansas and Nebraska, popular sovereignty (Kansas slave, Nebraska free)
  188. "Bleeding Kansas"
    border ruffians in election on issue of slavery incited controversy, proslavery group attacked Lawrence, Kansas, Pottawatomie Massacre
  189. Lecompton Constitution
    proslavery constitution in Kansas, supported by Buchanan, freesoilers against it (victorious), denied statehood until after secession
  190. John Brown
    led Pottawatomie Massacre, extreme abolitionist who believed he was doing God's work
  191. Pottawatomie Creek (May 1856)
    John Brown and his sons slaughtered five men as a response to the election fraud in Lawrence and the caning of Sumner in Congress
  192. Republican Party
    formed in response to Kansas-Nebraska Act, banned in the South, John C Fremont first presidential candidate
  193. Harpers Ferry (1859)
    Brown aimed to create an armed slave rebellion and establish black free state
  194. Dred Scott v. Sandford
    slaves could not sue in federal courts (blacks no longer considered citizens), slaves could not be taken from masters except by the law, Missouri Compromise unconstitutional, Congress not able to prohibit slavery in a state
  195. Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858)
    over Senate seat for Illinois (Douglas victor), Lincoln stated the country could not remain split over the issue of slavery
  196. Freeport Doctrine
    Douglas was able to reconcile the Dred Scott Decision with popular sovereignty
  197. Fort Sumter
    first shots are fired at Charleston, North Carolina
  198. 20-Negro Law
    exempted those who owned or oversaw twenty or more slaves from service in the Confederate Army
  199. Anaconda plan
    the Union planned a blockade that would not allow supplies of any sort into the Confederacy
  200. Ulysses S. Grant
    won battles in the West and raised northern morale (esp. Shiloh, Fort Henry, and Fort Donelson), made Union commanding general
  201. William T. Sherman
    pushed through northern Georgia, captured Atlanta, "march to the sea" (total war and destruction), proceeded to South Carolina
  202. Robert E. Lee
    opposed to slavery and secession, but stayed loyal to Virginia, despite offer for command of Union Army
  203. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson
    Lee's chief lieutenant and premier cavalry officer
  204. Battle of Antietam
    Lee's attack on Maryland in hopes that he could take it from the Union, bloodiest day of the war, stalemate, McClellan replaced by Burnside, stalemate, South would never be so close to victory again
  205. Emancipation Proclamation
    issued by Lincoln following Antietam (close enough to a victory to empower the proclamation), declared slaves in the Confederacy free (did not include border states), symbolic gesture to support Union's moral cause in the war
  206. Battle of Gettysburg
    Lee invaded Pennsylvania, bloodiest battle of the war, Confederate Pickett's Charge (disastrous), Lee forced to retreat (not pursued by Meade), South doomed to never invade North again, Gettysburg Address given by Lincoln (nation over union)
  207. New York City draft riots (1863)
    drafting extremely hated by Northerners, sparked by Irish-Americans against the black population, 500 lives lost, many buildings burned
  208. Military Reconstruction Act (1867)
    South divided into 5 military districts
  209. Compromise of 1877
    South to gain removal of last troops from Reconstruction
  210. Andrew Carnegie
    achieved an abnormal rise in class system (steel industry), pioneered vertical integration (controlled Mesabie Range to ship ore to Pittsburgh), opposed monopolies, used partnership of steel tycoons (Henry Clay Frick as a manager/partner), Bessemer steel process
  211. Standard Oil Trust
    small oil companies sold stock and authority to Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company (consolidation), cornered world petroleum market
  212. John D. Rockefeller
    Standard Oil Company, ruthless business tactics (survival of the fittest)
  213. Vertical and horizontal integration
    beginnings of trusts (destruction of competition)
  214. Sherman Anti-Trust Act
    forbade restraint of trade and did not distinguish good from bad trusts, ineffective due to lack of enforcement mechanism (waited for Clayton Anti-Trust Act)
  215. United States vs. EC Knight Company
    decision under Sherman Anti-Trust Act shot down by Supreme Court � sugar refining was manufacturing rather than trade/commerce
  216. National Labor Union
    founded by William Sylvis (1866)
  217. Knights of Labor
    founded by Uriah Stephens (1869)
  218. Terence V. Powderly
    Knights of Labor leader, opposed strikes, producer-consumer cooperation, temperance, welcomed blacks and women (allowing segregation)
  219. American Federation of Labor
    craft unions that left the Knights (1886), led by Gompers, women left out of recruitment efforts
  220. Samuel Gompers
    focused on skilled workers (harder to replace than unskilled), coordinated crafts unions, supported 8�hour workday and injury liability
  221. "Yellow dog contracts"
    fearing the rise of labor unions, corporations forced new employees to sign and promise not to be part of a union
  222. Pinkertons
    detectives hired by employers as private police force, often used to end strikes
  223. Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
    10-year moratorium on Chinese immigration to reduce competition for jobs (Chinese willing to work for cheap salaries)
  224. Haymarket Bombing
    bomb thrown at protest rally, police shot protestors, caused great animosity in employers for workers' unions
  225. Eugene V. Debs
    led railroad workers in Pullman Strike, arrested
  226. Social Darwinism
    natural selection applied to human competition, advocated by Herbert Spencer, William Graham Sumner
  227. Henry George, Progress and Poverty
    single tax on speculated land to ameliorate industrialization misery
  228. Edward Bellamy, Looking Backwards
    state-run economy to provide conflict-free society
  229. Karl Marx, Das Kapital
    working class exploited for profit, proletariat (workers) to revolt and inherit all society
  230. Thomas Edison
    electric light, phonograph, mimeograph, Dictaphone, moving pictures
  231. Louis Sullivan
    led architectural movement to create building designs that reflected buildings' functions, especially in Chicago
  232. Interstate Commerce Act
    created Interstate Commerce Commission to require railroads to publish rates (less discrimination, short/long haul), first legislation to regulate corporations, ineffective ICC
  233. Social Gospel movement
    stressed role of church and religion to improve city life, led by preachers Walter Raushenbusch and Washington Gladen
  234. Young Men's and Young Women's Christian Association (YMCA & YWCA)
    provided housing and recreation to city youth, imposing Protestant morals, unable to reach out to all youth
  235. Jane Addams
    helped lead settlement house movement, co-founded NAACP, condemned war and poverty
  236. Hull House
    Jane Addams's pioneer settlement house (center for women's activism and social reform) in Chicago
  237. Salvation Army
    established by "General" William Booth, uniformed volunteers provided food, shelter, and employment to families, attracted poor with lively preaching and marching bands in order to instill middle-class virtues
  238. Declining death rate
    sewer systems and purification of water
  239. New immigrants vs. old immigrants
    old immigrants from northern and western Europe came seeking better life
  240. Cult of domesticity
    Victorian standards confined women to the home to create an artistic environment as a statement of cultural aspirations
  241. William Marcy Tweed
    leader of Tammany Hall, gained large sums of money through the political machine, prosecuted by Samuel Tilden and sent to jail
  242. Tammany Hall
    Democratic political machine in NYC, "supported" immigrants and poor people of the city, who were needed for Democratic election victories
  243. Theodore Dreiser, Sister Carrie, The Financier
    attacked industrial elite, called for business regulation, publisher refused works breaking with Victorian ideals
  244. Regionalist and naturalist writers
    writing took a more realistic approach on the world, regionalist writers focused on local life (Sarah Orne Jewett), naturalist writers focused on economy and psychology (Stephen Crane)
  245. Bland-Allison Act (1878)
    government compromised to buy and coin $2-4 million/month
  246. Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890)
    government to buy silver to back money in addition to gold
  247. James G. Blaine
    Republican candidate for president in 1884, quintessence of spoils system
  248. Pendleton Civil Service Act
    effectively ended spoils system and established civil service exams for all government positions, under Pres. Garfield
  249. Farmers'Alliance movement
    Southern and Midwestern farmers expressing discontent, supported free silver and subtreasury plan (cash advance on future crop � farmers had little cash flow during the year), criticized national banks
  250. Greenback Party
    supported expanded money supply, health/safety regulations, benefits for workers and farmers, granger (farmer)-supported
  251. Populist Party
    emerged from Farmers' Alliance movement (when subtreasury plan was defeated in Congress), denounced Eastern Establishment that suppressed the working classes
  252. Convict-lease system
    blacks who went to prison taken out and used for labor in slave-like conditions, enforced southern racial hierarchy
  253. Civil Rights Cases
    Civil Rights Act of 1875 declared unconstitutional by Supreme Court, as the fourteenth amendment protected people from governmental infringement of rights and had no effect on acts of private citizens
  254. Plessy v. Ferguson
    Supreme Court legalized the "separate but equal" philosophy
  255. Munn v. Illinois
    private property subject to government regulation when property is devoted to public interest
  256. Jim Crow laws
    educational and residential segregation
  257. Coxey's Army
    Coxey and unemployed followers marched on Washington for support in unemployment relief by inflationary public works program
  258. Panic of 1893
    8,000 businesses collapsed (including railroads)
  259. William Jennings Bryan
    repeat candidate for president, proponent of silver-backing (16:1 platform), cross of gold speech against gold standard
  260. Free silver
    Populists campaigned for silver-backed money rather than gold-backed, believed to be able to relieve working conditions and exploitation of labor
  261. Triangle Shirtwaist fire
    workers unable to escape (locked into factory), all died
  262. Gifford Pinchot
    head of federal Division of Forestry, contributed to Roosevelt's natural conservation efforts
  263. Frederick W. Taylor, Principles of Scientific Management
    increase working output by standardizing procedures and rewarding those who worked fast
  264. Industrial Workers of the World
    supported Socialists, militant unionists and socialists, advocated strikes and sabotaging politics, aimed for an umbrella union similar to Knights of Labor, ideas too radical for socialist cause
  265. "Big BM" Haywood
    leader of IWW, from Western Federation of Miners
  266. Thorstein Veblen, The Theory of the Leisure Class
    satirized wealthy captains of industry, workers and engineers as better leaders of society
  267. Herbert Croly, The Promise of American Life
    activist government to serve all citizens (cf. Alexander Hamilton)
  268. John Dewey
    social ideals to be encouraged in public school (stress on social interaction), learning by doing
  269. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.
    law meant to evolve as society evolves, opposed conservative majority
  270. Booker T. Washington
    proponent of gradual gain of equal rights for African-Americans
  271. "Atlanta Compromise" speech
    given by BTW to ease whites' fears of integration, assuring them that separate but equal was acceptable, ideas challenged by DuBois
  272. WEB DuBois, Souls of Black Folk
    opposed BTW's accommodation policies, called for immediate equality, formed Niagara Movement to support his ideas
  273. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
    formed by white progressives, adopted goals of Niagara Movement, in response to Springfield Race Riots
  274. Muckrakers
    uncovered the "dirt" on corruption and harsh quality of city/working life
  275. Upton Sinclair, The Jungle
    revealed unsanitary nature of meat-packing industry, inspired Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
  276. Thomas Nast
    political muckraking cartoonist, refused bribes to stop criticism
  277. Robert La Follette
    created the Wisconsin Idea (as governor of Wisconsin) � regulated railroad, direct-primary system, increased corporate taxes, reference library for lawmakers
  278. Mann Act
    made it illegal to transport women across state borders for "immoral purposes," violated by black boxer Jack Johnson (w/ white woman)
  279. Women's Christian Temperance Union
    led by Francis Willard, powerful "interest group" following the civil war, urged women's suffrage, led to Prohibition
  280. Charlotte Perkins Gilman
    women must gain economic rights in order to impact society (cf. rising divorce rates)
  281. Northern Securities Case
    Northern Securities Company (JP Morgan and James G. Hill - railroads) seen by Roosevelt as "bad" trust, Supreme Court upheld his first trust-bust
  282. Theodore Roosevelt
    first "modern" president, moderate who supported progressivism (at times conservative), bypassed congressional opposition (cf. Jackson), significant role in world affairs
  283. Square Deal
    Roosevelt's plan that aimed to regulate corporations (Anthracite coal strike, Dept. of Commerce and Labor, Elkins and Hepburn Acts), protect consumers (meat sanitation), and conserve natural resources (Newlands Reclamation Act)
  284. Preservationism vs. Conservationism
    Roosevelt and Pinchot sided on conservation rather than preservation (planned and regulated use of forest lands for public and commercial uses)
  285. William H. Taft
    "trustbuster" (busted twice as many as Roosevelt), conservation and irrigation efforts, Postal Savings Bank System, Payne-Aldrich Tariff (reduction of tariff, caused Republican split)
  286. Bull Moose Party
    party formed from Republican split by Roosevelt, more progressive values, leaving "Republican Old Guard" to control Republican party
  287. New Nationalism
    federal government to increase power over economy and society by means of progressive reforms, developed by Roosevelt (after presidency)
  288. New Freedom
    ideas of Wilson: small enterprise, states' rights, more active government, trust busting, left social issues up to the states
  289. Woodrow Wilson
    Democratic candidate 1912, stood for antitrust, monetary change, and tariff reduction
  290. Federal Reserve Act
    created Federal Reserve System, regional banks set up for twelve separate districts, final authority of each bank lay with the Federal Reserve Board, paper money to be issued "Federal Reserve Notes"
  291. Pan-Americanism
    James G. Blaine sought to open up Latin American markets to the U.S.
  292. Yellow journalism
    created by Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst
  293. Jingoism
    belligerent nationalism against other threatening nations
  294. Secretary of State John Hay
    ex-Lincoln secretary
  295. Open Door Policy
    sought to eliminate spheres of influence and avoid European monopolies in China
  296. Spanish American War (1898)
    McKinley reluctant
  297. Explosion of USS Maine
    meant to provide evacuation opportunity for Americans in Cuba
  298. Platt Amendment
    U.S. would ensure that Cuba would be protected from European powers and maintain a place in Cuban affairs
  299. US acquisitions
    Philippines, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam: granted to U.S. at the end of Spanish-American War
  300. Naval battle in Manila Bay, Philippines
    Admiral Dewey defeated Spanish initially
  301. TR mediates Russo-Japanese War
    secretly sponsored peace negotiations so as to prevent Japanese or Russian monopoly on Asia
  302. Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
    U.S. felt it was its duty to "watch out" for the interests of other countries in the Western hemisphere
  303. Panama Canal
    needed to protect new Pacific acquisitions, U.S. took over the project from the French after overcoming Clatyton� Bulwer Treaty (prohibited exclusive control of canal) with the Hay� Pauncefote Treaty
  304. "Gentlemen's Agreement" (1908)
    in response to Japanese discrimination in San Fran schools
  305. Dollar Diplomacy"
    government would protect America's foreign investments with any force needed
  306. Moral Diplomacy
    intervention in Mexican Revolution (Madero overthrew dictator Diaz) to overthrow Madero out of fear of property confiscation, General Huerta (seen as "brute" by Wilson, sought new leader) replaced Madero
  307. Invasion of Mexico, Pancho Villa
    Huerta's enemy, reluctantly supported by U.S.
  308. Lusitania
    British passenger liner secretly carrying ammunition sunk by German u-boat, included American passengers
  309. Zimmerman Note
    intercepted by Britain
  310. Unrestricted submarine warfare
    Germany announced that it would sink all (including American) ships, attempt to involve U.S. in war
  311. Creel Committee
    Committee on Public Information
  312. War Industries Board
    attempted to centralize production of war materials
  313. Conscription policies
    Selective Service Act to require men to register with few exceptions
  314. Herbert Hoover's Food Administration
    relied on voluntary compliance (no formal laws), propaganda
  315. Wilson's 14 points
    public treaties, free trade, free seas, reduced armament burdens, anti-imperialism, independence to minorities, international organization
  316. League of Nations
    foreshadowed in 14 points, hoped to guarantee political independence and integrity of all countries
  317. Great Migration
    mass migration northward
  318. Lodge Reservations
    14 formal amendments to the treaty for the League of Nations
  319. Isolationism
    avoided league of Nations, opposed Latin American involvement
  320. Espionage Act and Sedition Act
    fines and imprisonment for aiding the enemy or hindering U.S. military
  321. Schenk v. U.S.
    court case, upheld constitutionality of Espionage Act
  322. "Red Scare" (1919)
    anti-communist crusades due to fear of radicalism spurred by Bolshevik rebellion
  323. Palmer Raids
    Congressional support to raid houses of radicals believed to have connections to communism
  324. "Red Summer," race riots (1919)
    spurred by Great Migration, large-scale riots, lynchings, &c.
  325. Nativism
    severe immigration laws to discourage and discriminate against foreigners, believed to erode old-fashioned American values
  326. Ku Klux Klan
    spread quickly
  327. National Origins Act (1924)
    reduced quota, reduced numbers from eastern and southern Europe, Asians banned, Canadians and Latin Americans exempt
  328. Sacco and Vanzetti Trial
    prejudiced jury sentenced them to death, caused riots around the world, new trial denied
  329. Scopes Trial
    Darwinian (influenced by jazz age and new scientific ideas) against Fundamentalist (the Bible and Creationism)
  330. Prohibition, rise of organized crime
    supported by women and churches, instituted by Volstead Act, lacked enforcement
  331. Frederick W. Taylor, Scientific Management
    efficient working methods to increase productivity
  332. Henry Ford's assembly line
    mass production of the Model-T, workers as potential consumers (raise wages), supported other industries and raised employment
  333. Bruce Barton
    The Man Nobody Knows, glorification of business, Jesus as a businessman, relationship between religion and manufacturing
  334. Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
    Alice Paul
  335. Jazz
    dance music, slave spirituals adapted into improvisation and ragtime
  336. "Lost Generation"
    new generation of writers outside of Protestantism, resentment of ideals betrayed by society
  337. Harlem Renaissance
    authors included Langston Hughes, McKay, Zora Neale Hurston, Countee Cullet � praise and expression of black culture of the time
  338. Marcus Garvey
    started the United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) � "Back to Africa" movement for racial pride and separatism
  339. Charles Lindbergh
    considered a hero for his solo crossing of the Atlantic by plane
  340. Washington Disarmament Conference (1921)
    US, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy to reduce naval tonnage and halt construction for 10 years
  341. Dawes Plan (1924)
    to make German reparations from WWI more accessible to Germans
  342. Conservative policies of Harding and Coolidge
    lowering of income taxes for wealthy (trickle-down economics), refusal to create higher prices to help farmers (McNary-Haugen Bill)
  343. Fordney-McCumber Tariff and Smoot-Hawley Tariff
    1922 and 1930, raised tariffs extremely high on manufactured goods
  344. Teapot Dome scandal
    Albert Fall accused of accepting bribes for access to government oil in Teapot Dome, Wyoming
  345. Herbert Hoover, secretary of commerce
    known as "wartime food czar
  346. Andrew Mellon, secretary of the treasury
    introduced the "trickle-down" economics theory in order to promote business and increase money available for speculation
  347. Farm crisis
    agricultural depression as precursor to the depression
  348. Causes of the depression
    rise in stock prices and speculation, decline of construction industry, mistaken "trickle-down" economics, reliance on credit
  349. Stock market crash
    (1929) stock prices fell drastically
  350. Hoover's policy of voluntarism
    emphasized importance of private charities to help the depression
  351. Hoovervilles
    sets of cardboard box houses that epitomized the country's blame on Hoover for the cause of the Depression
  352. Bonus Army
    veterans from WWI sought their pensions before they were too old to use them
  353. Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)
    attempted to boost economy by making loans to banks and insurance companies, hoping to restart them
  354. President Franklin Roosevelt
    introduced his "New Deal," won election by a relative landslide (he was not Hoover, whom the public now did not trust)
  355. New Deal
    FDR's plan (although vague during the campaign) to restart the economy and pull America out of the Great Depression
  356. "Brain trust"
    FDR's inner circle of experts rather than just politicians in the cabinet
  357. "Hundred days"
    accomplished great number of relief, recovery, and reform efforts
  358. Emergency Banking Relief Act
    four-day banking holiday to create controlled inflation, followed by reopening of sound banks, and reorganization of unsound banks
  359. National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) & National Recovery Administration (NRA)
    Part of "First" New Deal Program (1933-1935), prevented extreme competition, labor management disputes, and over-production
  360. Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
    Part of "First" New Deal Program, subsidies to farmers to decrease production and thus increase prices
  361. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
    Part of "First" New Deal Program (1933-1935), hydroelectric power to river valley
  362. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
    Part of "First" New Deal Program (1933-1935), employed young jobless men with government projects on work relief and environment
  363. Federal Emergency Relief Act (FERA)
    Part of "First" New Deal Program (1933-1935), provided more funds to state and local relief efforts
  364. Public Works Administration (PWA)
    Part of "First" New Deal Program (1933-1935), Harold Icicles, provided public construction projects
  365. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
    Part of "First" New Deal Program (1933-1935), insured deposits < $5000, reassured American public of the worth of banks
  366. Social Security Act of 1935 (SSA)
    Part of "Second" New Deal Programs (1935-1938), used withheld money from payrolls to provide aid to the unemployed, industrial accident victims, and young mothers
  367. Works Progress Administration (WPA)
    Part of "Second" New Deal Programs (1935-1938), Harry Hopkins
  368. Wagner Act / National Labor Relations Act
    Part of "Second" New Deal Programs (1935-1938), collective bargaining rights, closed shops permitted (where workers must join unions), outlawed anti-union tactics
  369. Fair Labor Standards Act
    Part of "Second" New Deal Programs (1935-1938), banned child labor, established minimum wage
  370. Keynesian economics
    philosophy that deficit spending during a depression would increase purchasing power and stimulate economy
  371. Indian Reorganization Act (1934)
    halted sale of tribal lands, enabled tribes to regain unallocated lands
  372. Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor
    first female cabinet member
  373. Butler v. U.S.
    court case, killed the AAA, although FDR insisted on continuing by creating smaller state-level AAAs
  374. Schechter v. U.S
    court case, unconstitutionalized the NRA due to delegation of legislative authority from Congress to executive
  375. Court Packing
    Judiciary Reorganization Bill
  376. Okies" and "Arkies"
    Americans who were forced out of their homes in Oklahoma and Arkansas (respectively) due to the dust storms and drought known as the Dust Bowl
  377. Deportations of Mexicans
    nationalists against foreign non-English speaking workers (took jobs away from American men)
  378. Critics of FDR
    Father Charles Coughlin (benefited only wealthy people and corporations), Huey Long ("share our wealth"), Francis Townshend (Old Age Revolving Pension)
  379. Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
    created by John L. Lewis for unskilled labor, organized "sit-down strike" against GM to work for recognition
  380. Dorothea Lange
    hired to photograph ordinary Americans experiencing the depression
  381. Good Neighbor Policy
    withdrawal of American troops from foreign nations (especially Latin America) to improve international relations and unite western hemisphere
  382. Isolationism in 1920s & 1930s
    Americans concerned with economic depression
  383. Neutrality Acts, 1935-37
    prohibited aiding of belligerent nations, banned civilian involvement
  384. Quarantine Speech, 1937
    FDR encouraged democracies to quarantine their opponents (economic embargos)
  385. Neutrality Act, 1939
    allowed sale of weaponry to democracies on "cash-and-carry" basis, avoided full-blown war
  386. Four Freedoms" speech
    FDR asked for increased authority to aid Britain
  387. Lend-Lease Act (1941)
    President to offer military supplies to nations "vital to the defense of the US"
  388. Pearl Harbor
    Japanese bombing of ships in harbor
  389. First American strategy in WWII
    FDR and Churchill agreed to defeat Germany first rather than concentrate on Japan
  390. Important WWII Battles
    Midway (US Signal Corps, turning point of war in the Pacific), D-Day (Eisenhower's amphibious invasion of Normandy, led to depletion of German forces), Stalingrad (Russians defeated Germans, saved Moscow and Leningrad, turning point in Europe)
  391. Japanese internment
    fear of Japanese-Americans as traitors, sent off (by law) to internment camps
  392. Reasons for US to drop atomic bombs
    risk of too many casualties and high costs for hand-to-hand combat/invasion, Japanese surrender unlikely
  393. Yalta Conference (1945)
    established world organization
  394. Potsdam Conference (1945)
    decided to punish war crimes, established program for de-Nazification of Germany
  395. The Homefront
    westward migration of workers (new economic opportunities, esp. aircraft industry), high rates of divorce and family/juvenile violence, women encouraged to work in factories, still held inferior to men
  396. Rationing
    Americans at home reminded to conserve materials in all aspects of life to support the military
  397. Rosie the Riveter
    symbol of women workers during the war
  398. John L. Lewis
    through CIO, led three coal mine strikes (some of the very few strikes during the time period)
  399. Bracero program
    brought in Mexicans for temporary jobs, concentrated in southern CA, given extremely poor working conditions (as they were not American citizens)
  400. Zoot Suit riots
    racism riots against Mexican laborers (imported for jobs)
  401. A. Philip Randolph and the March on Washington
    led Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters: threatened a siege on DC if FDR did not agree to end discrimination in military
  402. Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC)
    prohibited discrimination in any government-related work
  403. President Harry Truman
    first president to show positive response to civil rights movement
  404. Jackie Robinson
    first African-American in major league baseball
  405. Desegregation of Armed Forces (1947)
    banned racial discrimination in federal practices
  406. Dixiecrats, 1948
    fought for old Southern way of life (states' rights), attempted to gain higher standing within Democratic party
  407. Fair Deal
    preservation of New Deal, attempt at additions
  408. George Kennan
    US ambassador to Russia, notified Truman of Soviet ambitions to expand empire and overthrow other political forces
  409. Truman Doctrine
    support people oppressed by communism and non-democratic governments
  410. Marshall Plan
    US provided financial assistance to recover economies in Europe
  411. Berlin Airlift
    Soviets cut Berlin off from the rest of Germany by blockade
  412. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
    response to Berlin crisis, warned Moscow that threats would be answered with force
  413. Soviet atomic bomb
    September 1949, US no longer held monopoly
  414. China turns communist
    Mao Zedong (communist) defeated nationalist forces of Kai-Shek (supported by US)
  415. Korean War
    Soviet-aided North Korea attack on South Korea
  416. President Dwight D. Eisenhower
    Republican, popular hero of WWII
  417. Conformity in the 1950s
    strong patriotism and need to conform to try to avoid blame during red scare, non-churchgoers, unmarried, and critics suspected as communists
  418. Suburbia
    middle class
  419. "Baby Boom"
    unprecedented sudden growth spurt of American population (especially urban and suburban areas)
  420. GI Bill of Rights
    government ensured readjustment rights to GIs after WWI unrest, loans to veterans for higher education and mortgages (contributed to economic prosperity)
  421. Consumerism
    Americans could now spend what they had been told to save during the war (disposable income)
  422. "Affluent Society"
    economic prosperity of American society following WWII
  423. Non-conformity
    Elvis Presley, Marilyn Monroe, James Dean, Beatniks � rebelled against conservative conformity of the rest of the country (esp. targeted youth)
  424. Rock `n' Roll
    influence of African-American blues, music of the younger generation (gap between them and their parents)
  425. David Riesman
    (The Lonely Crowd) "outer directed" Americans conforming to peer pressure on moral and social issues, rather than independently thinking on morals
  426. Richard Nixon, Alger Hiss
    Nixon led movement to Hiss's indictment
  427. McCarthyism
    attacked people for being communist by association and unsubstantiated claims, against Truman, Marshall, and Ike
  428. Domino theory
    one country that falls into communism will cause surrounding nations to also fall "like dominos"
  429. Community on Un-American Activities (HUAC)
    attacked public figures (Hollywood, New-Dealers, liberals) to root out communist spies
  430. Truman's Loyalty Program
    Truman tested for communist alliances within government
  431. Rosenbergs
    executed for leaking atomic secrets to Soviets, avowed communists
  432. John Foster Dulles
    secretary of state, policy to liberate captive people in Eastern Europe by political pressure and propaganda
  433. CIA overthrow of Iran (1953)
    installed Shah as dictator, overthrew Moussadegh (communist interests), in order to resist nationalization British oil holdings
  434. CIA overthrow of Guatemala (1954)
    overthrew Pres. Guzman after he nationalized American fruit fields and accepted arms from USSR (communist sympathies)
  435. Sputnik
    caused American hysteria (1957), fear that Soviets were technologically superior
  436. National Aeronautics Space Agency (NASA)
    launched in 1958 by Ike
  437. U-2 Incident
    American U-2 spy plane shot down over USSR (Ike: "for national security)
  438. Ike's Farewell Speech
    warned of dangerous military-industrial complex (newly-found power of the military to affect the path of democracy)
  439. AFL-CIO (1955)
    unemployment jitters
  440. US economy since WWII (service economy)
    highest peacetime deficit in US history (due to lower tax rates for high-income taxpayers, spent too much money attempting to reduce price supports to farmers)
  441. Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
    blacks denied admission to all-white school
  442. Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955)
    Parks arrested for refusing to give up bus seat to white man, African American leaders called for city-wide boycott of bus system (lasted almost 400 days)
  443. Martin Luther King Jr., Southern Christian Leadership Conference
    led boycott, became leader of civil rights movement
  444. Little Rock Crisis (1957)
    Ike forced to send National Guard to escort black children to school to quell riots and resistance (first time since Reconstruction that troops used in the south to enforce Constitution)
  445. Greensboro sit-in (1960)
    nonviolent protest to college students (NC) being refused lunch service
  446. Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1960
    commission on civil rights to attempt to guarantee the ballot to blacks
  447. Election of 1960
    Kennedy vs. Nixon, Kennedy (due to televised charisma) won over Nixon (pale and nervous)
  448. President John F. Kennedy
    second youngest president, entered presidency as tensions of the Cold War increased
  449. Rachel Carson, Silent Spring
    effects of pesticides on the environment
  450. Berlin Wall
    due to threat of nuclear war, Soviets erected wall to separate East Berlin from West Berlin (end exodus of intellect to west)
  451. Peace Corps
    created in 1961 as example of liberal anticommunism in third world countries
  452. Alliance for Progress (Marshall Plan of Latin America)
    Americans feared Soviet infiltration into Latin America, placed secret police and military forces to prevent it
  453. Bay of Pigs invasion
    CIA attempt to institute Cuban support to overthrow Castro
  454. Cuban Missile Crisis
    storage of Soviet missiles in Cuba (threat of nuclear war)
  455. Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
    prohibited testing of nuclear bombs above ground to slow the nuclear arms race and the release of nuclear fallout into the atmosphere
  456. Freedom Riders (Congress of Racial Equality - CORE)
    interracial group of protestors who aimed to dramatize the violations of the call for desegregation
  457. James Meredith
    black veteran escorted to be enrolled in Univ. of Miss. by military (school reluctant, cf. Little Rock Nine)
  458. March on Birmingham
    King hosted myriad nonviolent protesting activities to fill jail with protestors, Bill Connor (police commissioner) began violent resistance to protestors
  459. March on Washington, "I have a dream"
    25,000 people (including whites) convened for political rally, MLK's speech to historical event
  460. Assassination of JFK, Warren Commission
    Assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald (hated his anti-Cuban policies)
  461. President Lyndon B. Johnson
    dealt with Vietnam War, "Great Society" program for improvement of American society, antipoverty and anti-discrimination programs
  462. "Great Society"
    LBJ's flood of proposals to Congress for the beautification and amelioration of American society (War on Poverty, Medicare, public education spending, public television (PBS), National Endowments for the Humanities and Arts (NEH, NEA))
  463. Affirmative Action
    sets of programs geared towards minorities and oft-discriminated populations
  464. Immigration Act of 1965
    abolished national origins quotas, dramatically increased immigration (especially from Asia and Latin America)
  465. Civil Rights Act of 1964
    banned racial discrimination and segregation (public), bias by federal government
  466. Voting Rights Act of 1965
    prohibited use of any devices (e.g., literacy tests) to deny the right to vote and enforced black suffrage rights
  467. Forced busing
    due to parents unhappy with encouraged segregation of schools, Supreme Court instituted forced busing policies (using school buses as a method of integration)
  468. Malcolm X, Nation of Islam
    Black Muslim worked to raise black spirits and pride (cf. Marcus Garvey)
  469. Black Power, Stokely Carmichael
    black rights leader, heavily influenced by Malcolm X (advocated black separatism rather than integration)
  470. Black Panther Party
    another black separatist movement
  471. Gains for women
    rejection of negative portrayals of women (language, entertainment), increased quality and use of education, more job opportunities, acceptance into military
  472. National Organization of Women
    founded by Betty Friedan, Bella Abzug, and Aileen Hernandez
  473. Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique
    denounced the "housewife trap" which caused educated women to hold even themselves inferior to men
  474. Roe v. Wade
    court case, unconstitutionalized all state laws prohibiting women's rights to have an abortion performed during the first trimester of pregnancy
  475. Cesar Chavez, United Farm Workers
    used nonviolent protest and boycott to achieve better working conditions for farmers (esp. Mexican-Americans)
  476. Vietnam War
    United States aided South Vietnam in its war of power struggle against North Vietnam, the Vietcong, USSR, and China
  477. Ngo Dinh Diem
    Catholic communist autocrat of Vietnam, assassinated (with aid of US)
  478. Ho Chi Minh
    contending communist politician in Vietnam, had more popularity than Diem, took power upon Diem's death
  479. Vietcong
    National Liberation Front, guerilla militia from south Vietnam fighting alongside the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam)
  480. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
    Congress authorized LBJ to repel and prevent aggression against US troops in Vietnam, used as a blank check (perhaps too much, caused protests)
  481. Tet Offensive (1968)
    NLF attacked numerous South Vietnamese cities and American embassies, eventually repulsed
  482. Impact of LBJ's Vietnam decision on 1968 election
    left primary open to Robert Kennedy and Eugene McCarthy, both promising to end the controversial war
  483. "New Left" (free speech movement)
    youth activists (often liberal arts students) spoke out against Vietnam War, supported widespread liberalization
  484. Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
    part of the New Left that envisioned "participatory democracy" (individuals control life-affecting decisions), end materialism, militarism, and racism
  485. Andy Warhol
    pop art, mass production of art by screening
  486. Warren Court
    desegregation (Brown v. Board of Ed), rights of the accused (Miranda v. Arizona), voting reforms (Wesberry v. Sanders, Reynolds v. Sims, Katzenbach v Morgan)
  487. 1968 as "the year of shocks"
    Tet Offensive in Vietnam, assassination of MLK and Robert Kennedy (presidential candidate), Riot of Democratic National Convention (Chicago police beat antiwar protestors), Black Panthers
  488. 1968 Presidential Election
    George Wallace vs. Nixon vs. Humphrey
  489. Richard Nixon (R)
    "Southern Strategy" lured many southern Democrats to the Republican party (esp. due to southern opposition to Civil Rights Act of 1964)
  490. George Wallace, American
    appealed to many conservatives, especially southerners (opposed massive protests and integration)
  491. Vietnamization
    part of Nixon's tri-faceted plan to honorably remove troops from Vietnam
  492. Bombing and invasion of Cambodia
    another part of Nixon's out-of-Vietnam plan, destroy supply routes to North Vietnam through Cambodia
  493. Kent State Protest
    Kent State University students protesting against invasion of Cambodia, not allowed to demonstrate, violence (murder) caused by guardsmen
  494. "Silent Majority"
    speech symbolized polarization between conservatives and liberals
  495. Conservative backlash against liberalism
    conservatives like Reagan benefited from denouncing the New Left and excessive antiwar protests
  496. Detente, realpolitik
    detente achieved with USSR and China by withdrawal from Vietnam
  497. Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT I)
    Nixon agreed with USSR to achieve nuclear equality rather than the superiority that threatened the destruction of the world
  498. New Federalism
    Nixon's domestic policy
  499. Watergate Scandal
    despite near-guaranteed second term, campaign workers burglarized Democratic offices, cover-up unsuccessful, resigned to avoid impeachment
  500. Energy Crisis, OPEC
    increased already high rate of inflation by quadrupling the price of crude oil
  501. Stagflation
    Ford's and Carter's presidencies experienced a recession and inflation simultaneously, solved by Keynesian economics
  502. President Jimmy Carter
    Panama Canal Treaty, diplomacy with China, end of recognition of Taiwan
  503. Humanitarian diplomacy
    fought for human rights in Africa, Panama Canal returned to Panama, relations with China resolved
  504. Camp David Accords
    (peace btw Egypt and Israel) followed years of tension, Israel would leave newly acquired lands from war, Egypt would respect Israel's other land claims
  505. Iran Hostage Crisis, 1979
    American hostages taken by US hating Shiites upon Shah's flight from uprising, botched rescue attempts
  506. Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
    despite CIA-sponsored Soviet resistance, Afghanistan taken by Soviet Union
  507. Deregulation
    drastic cutbacks in regulation of business by the federal government (banks, transportation, communications
  508. Election of 1980
    decisive victory to Reagan due to his appeal over Carter (now unpopular due to lack of success in the presidency
  509. President Ronald Reagan
    offered a New Deal (reminiscent of FDR) of smaller government, reduced taxes, and free enterprise
  510. Conservatism
    belief in minimal government so as to allow the people their own free reign, lower taxes to stimulate economy, &c.
  511. Religious Right
    political action for religion justified by decreased presence of religion in society
  512. Reaganomics
    capitalism would become productive when uninhibited by taxes and regulation
  513. Supply-side economics, tax cuts
    tax cuts to increase population spending (help economy), drastic cutting back on government programs due to lack of funds
  514. Nicaraguan Contras
    guerilla army sponsored by CIA to attack procommunist revolutionaries in Nicaragua
  515. "Evil Empire" speech, "Star Wars"
    Reagan called the Soviet Union an "evil empire"
  516. Mikhail Gorbachev
    Soviet leader undergoing tensions on superpower and domestic level
  517. Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty (1987)
    Reagan and Gorbachev agree to remove and destroy nuclear weapons from Eastern and Western Europe
  518. Fall of communism in Eastern Europe (1989)
    Gorbachev announced Soviet withdrawal of power from all of Eastern Europe, including Berlin (wall torn down, free movement, &c.)
  519. Fall of Soviet Union (1991)
    Gorbachev decreased nuclear arsenals, Communist Party lost power, Boris Yeltsin (president of Russian Republic) led Muscovites to take control
  520. "Graying of America"
    economic recession (collapse of savings-and-loan industry, increasing deficit due to Reagan tax cuts, retail decreased, higher crime rate)
  521. Economic transition
    to service economy in late 20 century (end of industrialism) - higher focus on services (esp. education) rather than material products
  522. Gulf War, "Operation Desert Storm" (1991)
    Saddam Hussein's invasion of Kuwait despite peace treaty and refusal to abandon Iraqi occupation
  523. 1992 Election
    Bush vs. Clinton vs. Perot
  524. President Bill Clinton
    scholarly, welfare-reform, "Contract with America," impeachment over Monica Lewinski Scandal, War in Kosovo
  525. Gays in the military
    ended exclusion of homosexuals from military
  526. North American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA (1994)
    established free trade zone between Canada, United States and Mexico, net gain in jobs due to opening of Mexican markets
  527. "Contract with America" (1994)
    Newt Gingrich (Republican congressman) planned for success of Republican party in upcoming election by pledging tax cuts, congressional term limits, tougher crime laws, balanced budget amendment, popular reforms &c.
  528. Clinton impeachment (1997)
    helped approval ratings, not removed from office despite all the efforts of Republican congressmen
  529. Bush v. Gore (2000)
    Gore promising with experience, Bush appealing by family influence and plans for presidency (tax cuts, education reform, defense, &c.)
  530. 9/11 Terrorist Attacks on NYC & DC (2001)
    planes hijacked by terrorists for destruction
  531. Invasion of Afghanistan (2002)
    overthrow of the Taliban, in search of bin Laden
  532. Invasion of Iraq, removal of Saddam Hussein, 2003
    Iran, Iraq, and North Korea designated as the "axis of evil," institution of democratic government in Iraq to replace Hussein's dictatorship (return to spread and protection of democracy throughout the world, moving beyond containment of communism)
  533. Citizen Genet
    Edmond Genet contributed to polarization of the new nation by creating his American Foreign Legion in the south, which was directed to attack Spanish garrisons in New Orleans and St. Augustine
Card Set