APUSH COLONIES/revoloution

  1. Virginia
    • 1600
    • english settlers who believed church of england was beyond saving (separatists)
    • led by wiliam Bradford
    • first was Roanoke, but it was lost
    • Real first was Jamestown with leader John Smith who helped keep things running
    • John Rolfe tobacco farming
    • Headright-helped with indentured servants, got purchasers 50 acres of land
  2. Bacon's Rebellion
    • in Virginia
    • Deog Indians attacked
    • Nathanial Bacon didn't like that Gov. Barkley was trying to please indians
    • he overthrew barkley and burned the town
  3. Plymouth
    • (Puritan separatists or Congregationalists)
    • Pilgrims had permission to settle in Virginia but landed in Massachusetts
    • Mayflower Compact - set up a goverment outside jurisdiction of Virginia Co.
    • Squanto, friendly Indians
    • William Bradford - 2nd governor of colony
    • 1621 - became a chartered colony
    • 1625 - Charles I
  4. Massachusetts Bay Colony
    • 1629
    • Puritans (non-separatists)
    • 1630 - first settlement of over 1000 (largest single migration)
    • 1630 - set up own government
    • Each town had own little government, self-governed
    • Only elect ("Saints") could hold public office, which caused frequent divisions
    • "A city upon a hill" ...model society
  5. Connecticut
    • 1635
    • Thomas Hooker and his congregation
    • Hooker broke from the Massachusetts colony government
    • 1639 - Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
    • 1662 - recognized as a colony and given royal charter
  6. Rhode Island
    • 1635
    • Roger Williams and followers anne hutchenson
    • Williams broke from Massachusetts government
    • Bought land from Indians to found town of Providence
    • 1644 - obtained royal charter
    • Only American colony with complete religious freedom
  7. Maine and New Hampshire
    • 1629
    • Separated from Massachusetts by the Council of New England
  8. New Hampshire - followers of Anne Hutchinson (Anti-Nomianists)
    • 1639
    • John Mason was governor
    • John Wrainwright started the colony
    • 1679 - recognized as a colony
    • 1675 - King Phillip's War
    • Wompanowags - Massachusetts had tried to assert court jurisdiction over Indians
    • Lasted 1 year, ended with help from Mohawks
  9. Maryland
    • 1632
    • Established for Catholics, proprietary
    • Led by a noble with charter
    • Founded by George Calvert
    • 1649 - Act Concerning Religion established religious freedom
  10. Pennsylvania
    • Charles II gave land to William Penn
    • Penn founded a colony for Quakers
    • Religious freedom, no church heirarchy
    • 1682 - Philadelphia was built, but no one lived there
    • 1701 - Charter of Liberties
    • Established representative government
    • Allowed counties to form new colonies
  11. Georgia
    • 1773
    • Queen Anne's War (1701-1713) showed need for a buffer for Carolinas
    • Founded by a charity
    • Military - protected Carolinas from Spanish Florida and Indian raids
    • Founded by Oglethorpe
    • Resettled poor and criminals, colony was tightly disciplined
    • No slaves, no alcohol, no catholics
    • Colony leadership broke down
    • Residents wanted to own slaves
    • People angry at Oglethorpe's dictatorship
    • 1750 - end of ban on slavery
    • 1752 - English King authorized an elected government for colony
  12. Seven Years War
    • aka French and Indian War
    • Great Britain v New France colonies
    • 1756-1763
    • began with a dispute over the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers, the site of present-day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
    • France ceded French Louisiana west of the Mississippi River to its ally Spain in compensation for Spain's loss to Britain of Florida
    • ENDED BY TREATY OF PARIS AKA PROCLAMATION OF 1763-no colonist settlement past appalachain
  13. Merchantilism
    • GB policy
    • Fewer imports, more exports
    • gov regulation commercial interests
  14. Stamp act
    • 1765
    • Was issued in order to raise revenues
    • to support the new British military force. Mandated the use of stamped
    • paper certifying the payment of taxes. Colonist were angrily aroused and
    • felt that this act was jeopardizing the basic right of the colonists as
    • Englishmen.
  15. sons of liberty
    • A radical political organization formed
    • after the passage of the Stamp Act to protest various British acts;
    • organization used both peaceful and violent means of protest
  16. declaratory act of 1766
    this Act repealed the Stamp Act, but stated that Great Britain can rule the colonies anyway she sees fit
  17. boston massacre
    • British soldiers fired into a crowd of
    • colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were
    • killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and
    • used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.
  18. tea act 1773
    • Law passed by parliament allowing the
    • British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the
    • colonies - undermining colonial tea merchants; led to the Boston Tea
    • Party
  19. coercive acts 1774
    British response to the Boston Tea Party, intended to punish Boston
  20. first continental congress
    Delagates from all colonies except georgia met in response to the intolerable acts. pass the non-importation order
  21. lexington and concord
    • The first battle of the Revolution in which
    • British general Thomas Gage went after the stockpiled weapons of the
    • colonists in Concord, Massachusetts.
  22. battle of saratoga
    • Turning point of the American Revolution. It
    • was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S.
    • military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat
    • in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most
    • importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to
    • beat their enemy, Great Britain.
  23. general cornwallis
    surrendered to the Americans at Yorktown
  24. articles of confederation
    • This document, the nation's first
    • constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781
    • during the Revolution. The document was limited because states held most
    • of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or
    • control coinage.
  25. James Madison
    Father of Constitution
  26. john adams
    • Lawyer who defended British soldiers in the
    • Boston Massacre trial. He believed in "innocent until proven guilty." In
    • spite of these actions, he supported colonial independence.
  27. second continental congress
    • They organized the continental Army, called
    • on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the
    • army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of
    • Independence
  28. treaty of paris 1783
    Treaty Between England and the Colonies , formally ended the American Revolutionary War.
  29. land ordinance of 1785
    • A major success of the Articles of
    • Confederation. Provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of
    • land belonging to the U.S.
  30. olive branch petition
    • On July
    • 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing
    • to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances
    • (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation
    • policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed
    • the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the
    • colonies.
  31. virginia resolution
    Resolutions passed in 1798 that attacked the Alien and Sedition Acts as being unconstitutional
  32. Alien and Sedition Acts
    • acts passed by federalists giving the
    • government power to imprison or deport foreign citizens and prosecute
    • critics of the government
  33. townshend acts 1767
    placed taxes on glass, lead, paint, paper and tea in the Colonies
  34. george III
    • English monarch at the time of the
    • revolution. He was the main opposition for the colonies due to his
    • stubborn attitude and unwillingness to hear out colonial
    • requests/grievances.
  35. samuel adams
    Founder of the Sons of Liberty and one of the most vocal patriots for independence; signed the Declaration of Independence
  36. common sense
    a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
  37. yorktown
    • in 1781 during the American Revolution the
    • British under Cornwallis surrendered after a siege of three weeks by
    • American and French troops
  38. shays rebellion
    • Rebellion led by Daniel Shays of farmers in
    • western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It
    • highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call
    • for the Constitutional Convention went out.
  39. alexander hamilton
    Delegate to the Constitutional Convention and leader of the Federalists; first secretary of the treasury.
  40. new jersey plan
    • The proposal at the Constitutional Convention
    • that called for equal representation of each state in Congress
    • regardless of the state's population
  41. Declaration of Independence
    • This document was
    • adopted on July 4, 1776. It
    • established the 13 American colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson wrote the
    • majority of this document.
  42. First Great Awakening
    • powerful preaching 1730s-40s
    • made people feel guilty for not being religious
    • incouraged morals
    • more women inchurches
  43. Second Great Awakening
    • Christian revival movement 1800-1860s
    • "people can be saved by revivals"
  44. Albany Plan
    • Ben Franklin
    • The plan called for the colonies to unify in
    • the face of French and Native American threats. The delegates approved
    • the plan, but the colonies rejected it for fear of losing too much
    • power. The Crown did not support the plan either, as it was wary of too
    • much cooperation between the colonies.
  45. Andrew Carnegie
    Built a steel mill empire; US STEEL
  46. Alien and Sedition Acts
    A series of laws that sought to restrict the activities of people who opposed Federalist policies (1798)
  47. Ballinger-Pinchot Affair
    • Taft cabinet members who had fought over
    • conservation efforts and how much effort and money should be put into
    • conserving national resources
  48. Barbary pirates
    • Plundering pirates off the Mediterranean
    • coast of Africa; President Thomas Jefferson's refusal to pay them
    • tribute to protect American ships sparked an undeclared naval war with
    • North African nations
  49. Big Stick Policy
    • Roosevelt's philosophy - In international
    • affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them.
    • Threaten to use force, act as international policemen
  50. Bland-Allison Act
    • 1878 -
    • Authorized coinage of a limited number of silver dollars and "silver
    • certificate" paper money. First of several government subsidies to
    • silver producers in depression periods. Required government to buy
    • between $2 and $4 million worth of silver. Created a partial dual
    • coinage system referred to as "limping bimetallism." Repealed in 1900.
  51. Booker T. Washington
    Influential black educator and leader. Said black could be social separated with whites, but together on other issues.
  52. Boston Tea Party
    • Boston patriots organized the Boston Tea
    • Party to protest the 1773 Tea Act. In December 1773, Samuel Adams warned
    • Boston residents of the consequences of the Tea Act. Boston was
    • boycotting the tea in protest of the Tea Act and would not let the ships
    • bring the tea ashore. Finally, on the night of December 16, 1773,
    • colonials disguised as Indians boarded the ships and threw the tea
    • overboard. They did so because they were afraid that Governor Hutchinson
    • would secretly unload the tea because he owned a share in the cargo.
  53. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
    • (1831) The Cherokees argued that they were a
    • seperate nation and therefore not under Georgia's jurisdiction. Marshall
    • said they were not, but rather had "special status"
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APUSH COLONIES/revoloution