MGMT 454 Final Exam .txt

  1. Stages of the Organization life cycle
    entrepreneurial stage, collective stage, formalization stage, elaboration stage
  2. Entrepreneurial stage
    growth through creativity - entrepreneurs develop the skills and abilities to create and introduce new products for new market niches
  3. Organizational goal
  4. Design implication
    informal, non-bureaucratic structure
  5. Crisis of...
    leadership. lack of organizational skills to develop the right strategy and structure
  6. Collective stage
    growth through direction - a beginning of devision of labor, development of clear goals and direction, establishment of department and hierarchy of authority
  7. Organizational goal
  8. Design implication
    pre-bureaucratic structure
  9. Crisis of...
    autonomy (delegation with control). search for mechanisms to control and coordinate departments without direct supervision from the top
  10. Formalization stage
    growth through coordination - separation of strategic and operational responsibilities; installation and use of rules, formal procedures, and control systems, addition of specialists
  11. Organizational goal
    internal stability and market expansion
  12. Design implication
    bureaucratic structure
  13. Crisis of...
    red tape. organizational effectiveness suffers from overly bureaucratic control
  14. Elaboration stage
    growth through collaboration - development of team work across departments or divisions; increased use of social control and interpersonal linkages
  15. Organizational goal
    brand recognition and strong organizational identity
  16. Design implication
    enabling bureaucratic structure
  17. Crisis of...
    revitalization. need for actively realign itself with the environment and streamline operation for innovation
  18. 3 forms of control
    bureaucracy, market, clan
  19. Bureaucracy
    Max weber's dimensions of bureaucracy - rules and procedures, specialization and division of labor, hierarchy or authority, technically qualified personnel, separate position from position holder, and written communications and records
  20. Market
    prices, competition, exchange relationship
  21. Clan
    tradition, shared values and beliefs, trust
  22. Reasons for organizational decline
    organizational atrophy, vulnerability, environmental decline
  23. Organizational atrophy
    entrenched in old ways of doing business
  24. Vulnerability
    lack of resources or clear vision
  25. Environmental decline
    unfavorable changes in the external environment
  26. Explain 4 types of organizational culture
    adaptability culture, mission culture, clan culture, bureaucratic culture
  27. Organization change
    refers to adoption of a new idea or behavior by an organization
  28. Evolutionary change
    change that is gradual, incremental, and narrowly focused
  29. Revolutionary change
    change that is sudden, drastic, and broadly focused
  30. Barriers to change
    excessive focus on costs associated with change, failure to perceive benefits of change, lack of coordination and cooperation within an organization, uncertainty avoidance mentality, fear of loss of power and status
  31. Calm Waters metaphor
    a description of organizations as a large ship making a predictable trip
  32. Kurt Lewin's change process model
    • -two sets of opposing forces within an organization determine how change will take place: forces for change and forces making organizations resistant to change,
    • -when forces for and against change are equal, the organization is in a state of intertia,
    • -to change an organization, managers must increase forces for change and/or decrease forces resisting change
  33. Organizational design for facillitating change in "white-water rapids"
    • managers must quickly and properly react to unexpected events. -be alert to problems and opportunities,
    • -become change agents in stimulating learning and implementing change in the organization
  34. Change in white water rapids continued
    move sfrom a mechanical system design with a stable environment and eficient performance to a natural system design with turbulent environment and learning organization
  35. Key tactics for managing change collaboratively
    • -build a climate of psychological safety,
    • -create a clear infrastructure that facilitates learning,
    • -change organization culture through altering employees' mind-set and behavior,
    • -generate capacity for mobilizing resources
  36. Concept of psychological safety
    • -create a climate of trust and mutual respect,
    • -establish multiple channels of communication to encourage people to speak up,
    • -acknowledge leaders' own fallibility,
    • -celebrate instances of courageous behaviors,
    • -be very clear about what constitutes punishable misconduct
  37. Ambidextrous approach
    look at powerpoint chapter 10 & 11 slide 13
  38. Sources of culture
    property rights system, organizational structure, organizational ethics, characteristics of people within the organization
  39. Property rights system
  40. Organizational structure
  41. Organizational ethics
  42. Characteristics of people
  43. Lessons from great depression
    look at powerpoint chapter 10 & 11 slide 17
  44. Key insights on organizational change
    • -the ability of an organization to align, execute and renew itself Faster than its competitors can lead to ultimate competitive advantage.
    • -recipe for excellence in a particular organization is specific to its history, external environment, and aspirations, as well as the passions and capabilities of its people
  45. Key elements of decision making process
    • organizational decision making
    • - process of identifying and solving problems
    • 1.problem identification
    • 2.problem solution
  46. Programmed decisions
    repetitive and well defined
  47. Non-programmed decisions
    novel and poorly defined
  48. Certain problem solution & identification
    management science approach
  49. Uncertain problem solution & Certain problem identification
    incremental decision model
  50. Certain problem solution & Uncertain problem identification
    carnegie model
  51. Uncertain problem solution & identification
    combination of carnegie and incremental decision model = garbage can model
  52. Management science approach
    • -decisions based on quantitative data analysis,
    • -suitable for assessing problems that are identifiable and measurable (scheduling and pricing),
    • -lacks rich explanation and prediction for a given phenomenon,
    • -uses for supplementary purposes
  53. Carnegie model
    • decision based on coalition building process.
    • -develop consensus on goals and problem priorities,
    • -build broad support for implementing solutions
  54. Satisficing
    limited information searches to identify problems and alternative solutiosn
  55. Bounded rationality
    a limited capacity to process information
  56. Satisfice
    due to bounded rationality
  57. Incremental decision model
    • decisions based on structured sequence of activities undertaken from discovery to solution,
    • large decisions are a collection of small choices;
    • -identification phase,
    • -development phase,
    • -selection phase,
    • -dynamic factors (decision interrupts)
  58. Garbage can model
    • -decisions based on multiple independent stream of events within an organization,
    • -solutions sometimes find a problem by chance, a pattern of randomness -- they just connect haphazardly
  59. Dimensions of organized anarchy
    problematic preferences, opaque organizational processes, fluid participation
  60. Problematic preferences
  61. Opaque organizational processes
  62. Fluid participation
  63. 3 types of cognitive biases
    escalating commitment, prospect theory, groupthink
  64. Escalating commitment
    continue to invest time and resources into a solution despite strong evidence suggesting it is not working
  65. Prospect theory
    tendency to overweight potential losses and underweight the potential gains
  66. Groupthink
    tendency to suppress contrary opinions to maintain group harmony
  67. Overcome Cognitive biases
    • -utilize evidence-based management,
    • -encourage dissenting voices,
    • -ensure diverse backgrounds,
    • -trust gut instincts, but only when four tests are met: ~familiarity test,
    • ~feedback test,
    • ~measured-emotions test,
    • ~independence test
  68. Adaptability culture
    • -characterized by strategic focus on the external environment through flexibility and change to meet customer needs,
    • -culture encourages entrepreneurial values, norms and beliefs that support the capacity of the organization to detect, interpret and translate signals form the environment into behavior responses,
    • -this type of company doesnt just react quickly to environmental changes it actively creates change. innovation,creativity,and risk taking are valued and rewarded ex:Google
  69. Mission culture
    • -organization concerned with serving specific customers in the external environment but without the need for rapid change,
    • -characterized by emphasis on a clear vision of the organization's purpose and on the achievement of goals, such as sales growth, profitability, or market share to help achieve the purpose,
    • -individual employees may be responsible for a specified level of performance and the organization promises rewards, bonuses or promotions in return. ex:Inbev
  70. Clan culture
    • -primary focus on the involvement and participation of the organization's members and on rapidly changing expectations from th external environment,
    • -focuses on meeting the needs of employees as the route to high performance,
    • -involvement and participation create a sense of responsibility and ownership and hence greater commitment to the organization
  71. Bureaucratic culture
    • -internal focus and a consistency orientation for a stable environment,
    • -supports a methodical approach to doing business,
    • -symbols, heroes, and ceremonies reinforce the values of cooperation, tradition and following established policies and practices as a way to achieve goals,
    • -personal involvement is lowered, but outweiged by a high level of consistency, conformity and collaboration succeds by beign higly integrated and efficient. ex:pacific edge software
  72. Sources of intergroup conflict
    • -goal incompatibility among departments,
    • -differentiation in norms and values,
    • -nature of task interdependence,
    • -compete for limited resources
  73. Relationship between conflict and performance
    look at powerpoint chapter 12 & 13 slide 14
  74. Tactics for enhancing collaboration
    • -emphasize shared mission and super-ordinate goals,
    • -create integration devices such as joint problem solving teams,
    • -use confrontation and negotiation to achieve win-win situation,
    • -use intergroup consultation techniques,
    • -practice member rotation
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MGMT 454 Final Exam .txt
Management 454