Cell definitions

  1. Cell
    The basic structural unit of all plants and animals. Cells are specialized to carry out all the body's basic functions.
  2. Cell membrane
    Also plasma membrane; the outer covering of a cell.
  3. Semipermeable
    Able to allow some, but not all, substances to pass through. Cell membranes are semipermeable.
  4. What are the 3 main elements of a cell?
    Cell membrane, Cytoplasm, Organelles.
  5. Cytoplasm
    The thick fluid, or protoplasm that fills a cell.
  6. Organelles
    Structures that preform specific functions with in a cell.
  7. Nucleus
    The organelle with in a cell that contains the DNA, or genetic material; in the cells of higher organisms, the nucleus is surrounded by a membrane.
  8. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
    A high-energy compound present in all cells, specially muscle cells; when split by enzyme action, it yields energy. Energy is stored by ATP.
  9. What is the structural hierarchy of the body?
    cells>tissues>organs>organ systems>organism
  10. Tissue
    A groups of cells that perform a similar function.
  11. Epithelial tissue
    The protective tissue that lines internal and external body tissues. Examples are skin, mucous membranes, the lining of the intestinal tract.
  12. Muscle tissue.
    Tissue that is capable of contraction when stimulated. Cardiac, smooth and skeletal.
  13. Connective tissue
    The most abundant tissue; it provides supper, connection and insulation. Examples: Bone, cartilage Fat, Blood.
  14. Nerve Tissue
    Tissue that transmits electrical impulses throughout the body.
  15. Organ
    a group of tissue functioning together.
  16. Organ system.
    A group of organs that work together. Example, Cardiovascular with includes the heart, blood vessels and blood.
  17. Organism
    The sum of all the cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems of a living being.
  18. What are the 10 organ systems?
    • Cardiovascular
    • Respiratory
    • Gastrointestinal
    • Genitourinary
    • Reproductive
    • Nervous
    • Endocrine
    • Lymphatic
    • Muscular
    • Skeletal
  19. Homeostasis
    The natural tendency of the body to maintain a steady normal internal environment.
  20. Anatomy
    The structure of an organism; Body structure.
  21. Physiology
    The functions of an organism; the physical and chemical processes of a living thing.
  22. Metabolism
    The total chances that take place during physiological processes.
  23. Negative feedback loop
    body mechanism that work to reverse, or compensate for , a pathophysiological process.
  24. What are the control systems?
    Endocrine and nervous.
  25. Intracellular fluid
    The fluid inside the body cells.
  26. Extracellular fluid
    The fluid outside of the body cells. It comprises the intravascular fluid and interstitial fluid.
  27. Intravascular fluid
    The fluid with in the circulatory system; blood plasma.
  28. Interstitial fluid
    The fluid in the body tissues that is outside the cells and outside the vascular system.
  29. Solvent
    A substance that dissolves other substances, forming a solution. In the body that is water.
  30. Turgor
    Normal tension in a cell; the resistance of the skin to deformation.
  31. Electrolyte
    A substance that , in water, separates into electrically charged particles.
  32. Dissociate
  33. Ion
    a charged particle; an atom or group of atoms whose electrical charge has changed from neutral to positive or negative by loosing or gaining one or more electrons.
  34. Cation
    an ion with a positive charge- so called because it will be attached to a cathode, or negative pole.
  35. Anion
    An ion with a negative charge- so called because it will be attached to an anode, or positive pole.
  36. Buffer
    A substance that tends to preserve or restore a normal acid-base balance by increasing or decreasing the concentration of hydrogen ions.
  37. Isotonic
    equal in concentration of solute molecules; solutions may be isotonic to each other.
  38. Hypertonic
    having a greater concentration of solute molecules; one solution may be hypertonic to another.
  39. Hypotonic
    having a lesser concentration of solute molecules; one solution may be hypotonic to another.
  40. Osmotic gradient
    The difference in concentration between solutions on opposite sides of a semipermeable membrane.
  41. Diffusion
    The movement of molecules through a membrane from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration.
  42. Osmosis
    The passage of a solvent, such as water through a membrane.
  43. active transport
    Movement of a substance through a cell membrane against the osmotic gradient; that is, from an area of lesser concentration to an area of higher concentration, opposite the normal direction of diffusion.
  44. Facilitated diffusion.
    Diffusion of a substance, such a glucose, through a cell membrane that requires the assistance of a "helper" or carrier protein.
  45. Osmolality
    the concentration of solute per KG of water.
  46. Osmolarity
    The concentration of solute per L of water.
  47. Osmotic pressure
    The pressure exerted by the concentration of solutes on one side of a membrane that, if hypertonic, tends to pull water from the other side of the membrane.
  48. Oncotic force.
    A form of osmotic pressure exerted by the larger particles, or colloids, present in blood plasma.
  49. Hydrostatic pressure
    Blood pressure or force against vessel walls created by the heart beat.
  50. Filtration
    movement of water out of the plasma across the capillary membrane into the interstitial space.
  51. Net filtration.
    the total loss of water from the blood plasma across the capillary membrane into the interstitial space.
  52. Acidosis
    a high concentration of hydrogen ions; a pH below 7.35
  53. Alkalosis
    A low concentration of hydrogen ions; a pH above 7.45
Card Set
Cell definitions
Definitions from the Cell chapter