1. What is a hormone?
    a chemical messenger secreted by an endocrine gland and transported by the blood
  2. How do the exocrine glands differ from the endocrine glands?
    • endocrine are ductless
    • exocrine have ducts
  3. By what method are hormones transported?
    through the blood
  4. Hormones derived from cholesterol:
    Sources of these hormones?
    • steroids
    • adrenal cortex, ovaries, testes
  5. The classification of hormones produced by the other endocrine glands:
    • non steroids
    • ex: thyroxin
  6. What is the relationship between target cells and hormones?
    target cells have specific receptors for a specific hormone
  7. Why arent the nontarget cells affected by hormones along with the target cells?
    they dont have receptors for the hormones
  8. Explain why hormones do not affect just any target cell:
    target cells have specific receptors for a particular hormone
  9. The technical term for the pituitart gland:
    The anterior lobe:
    The posterior lobe:
    • hypophysis
    • adenohypophysis
    • neurohypophysis
  10. List the hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary:
    • Prolactin (PRL)
    • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
    • Growth hormaone (GH)
    • Somatotropin (STH)
    • Adrenocorrticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
    • Luteinizing hormone (LH)
  11. List the hormones of the posterior pituitary:
  12. The two endocrine glands under the influence of neural impulses are:
    adrenal medulla and pituitary
  13. Which type of feedback usually regualtes hormone production?
  14. Using TSH and thyroxine, explaine negative feedback control using specific endocrine glands, secretion amts, etc.
  15. What is the function of STH? What is STH?
    • promotes growth of body cells and cell division
    • somatotropic hormone
  16. A hyposecretion of STH in childhood:
  17. A hypersecrion in childhood of STH:
  18. Source of ACTH:
    Action of ACTH:
    • Adenohypophysis
    • stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids
  19. How does thyrotropic hormone differ from thyroxine?
  20. Explain how hypo- and hypersecretion of TSH and thyroxine differ:
  21. Source of FSH:
    Source of LH:
    Source of estrogen:
    Source of progesterone:
    Source of testosterone:
    • pituitary
    • pituitary
    • ovary
    • corpus leutum of ovaries
    • testes
  22. Helps initiate and maintain milk production after pregnancy:
  23. Stimulates the development of follicles and estrogen secretion:
  24. Hormone which prepares the uterus for embryo:
  25. Hormone which stimulates the male testes to secrete testosterone:
    FSH or LH
  26. Hormone which controls metabolism:
  27. The cause of cretinism:
    hyposecretion of thyroxin before birth
  28. The cause of acromegaly:
    hypersecrition of GH in adulthood
  29. The cause for Graves' disease:
    hypersecretion of thyroxin in adulthood
  30. Where are hormones produced by the hypothalamus stored?
  31. Decreases water excretion by the kidneys:
    Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  32. What is myxedema?
    subcutaneous swelling, hairloss, low body temp, dry skin, muscle weakness
  33. Source of ADH:
  34. Explain how calcitonin and parathormone differ in sources and secretions:
    • Calcitonin- thyroid gland, decreases blood calcium levels
    • Parathormone- parathyroid gland, increases blood calcium levels
  35. Two hormones produced by the pancreas with opposite effects:
    Glucagon and insulin
  36. Site of glycogen conversion to glucose:
  37. Hypoglycemia results from hypersecretion of _____.
  38. The entry of glucose into the cells has what effect on blood glucose level?
  39. Why do diabetics have less energy than nondiabetics even though their blood glucose level is higher?
    glucose is out in the blood and not in your cells so no ATP is being produced and used
  40. Two sex hormones produced by the adrenal cortex:
    • adrenal estrogens
    • adrenal androgens
  41. Another name for adrenaline:
    Source of adrenaline:
    • epinephrine
    • adrenal medulla
  42. Explain how aldosterone elevates blood pressure:
    increase fluid retention and arterial pressure
  43. Which division of the ANS is associated with the adrenaline secretion:
  44. Hormones regulating the way electrolytes are processed in the body:
  45. Hormone from adrenal cortex that influences food metabolism:
  46. Which love of the hypohysis is directly connected to the hypothalamus?
  47. How is the adenohypophysis connected to the hypothalamus?
    network of capillaries and veins connecting thru a portal system
  48. What is the pituitary portal system?
    pituitary-->veins-->capillaries-->arteries to be secreted into the cells
  49. Steroid hormone of the ovaries secreted by corpus luteum which maintains the uterine lining for a successful pregnancy:
  50. Steroid hormone which promotes the development and maintenance of female sex characteristics:
  51. The hormone which promotes growth of body cells and cell division:
  52. The source of ACTH is _________.
  53. The thyrotropic hormone is secreted by:
  54. Thyroxine is secreted by which gland:
    thyroid gland
  55. List the sources of hormones derived from cholesterol:
    adrenal cortex, ovaries, and testes
  56. Which two systems function to achieve and maintain homeostasis?
    immune and endocrine
  57. List the ten glands of the endocrine system:
    pineal, pituitary, thyroid, thymus, adrenal, ovary, testis, pancreas, parathyroid, hypothalamus, kidney
  58. Name the hormone controlling the action of gluconeogensis in the liver:
  59. Name the hormone produced by the liver:
  60. The function of adipocytes:
  61. Which hormone is the most important regulator of electrolyte concentration in extracellular fluid?
  62. Which structures are the major targets of growth hormone?
    skeletal muscle and bone
  63. Which endocrine gland produces hormones involved in the immune response?
  64. Which organ synthesizes ANP?
  65. Which of these hormones is not a steroid? aldosterone, estrogen, testosterone, cortisone, epinephrine
  66. What name is given to chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body?
  67. The gland influencing day/night cycles is ________.
    pineal gland
  68. Name a gonadotropin-releasing hormone:
  69. Name two gonadotropins that regulate the function of the gonads:
    FSH and LH
  70. Which endocrine gland decreases in size and function with age?
  71. Name the hormone secreted by the kidneys and give its function:
    • Erythropoietin
    • stimulate production of red blood cells in the bone marrow
  72. Give the location for enteroendocrine cells and their function:
  73. How do corticosteroid hormones function:
  74. The gland embedded inside the thyroid _______.
  75. Beta cells of the pancreatic islets produce ______.
  76. Alpha cells of the pancreatic islets produce ________.
  77. Which element is essential for the synthesis of thyroxine?
  78. How do the glucocorticoid hormones function?
    promote gluconeogensis; hyperglycemia depress inflammatory and immune responses
  79. Do the coditions of diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus both involve the synthesis of insulin? ______ Explain: ________
    • No
    • Diabetes insipidus is a deficiency of ADH
    • Diabetes mellitus is sugar diabetes
  80. A high metabolic rate would probably indicate a malfunctioning of which gland?
  81. What action does arterial natriuretic peptide hormone have on urinary system?
    increase urinary secretion of Na
  82. Lacks insulin activity: type I or type II diabetes
    type II
  83. Prime metabolic effect of cortisol:
  84. Which endocrine structure develops from the nervous system?
    posterior pituitary
  85. Hormone raising blood sugar levels: ______
    Hormone decreasing blood sugar levels: _____
    • glucagon
    • insulin
  86. Give the source of secretion for the following hormones:
    ACTH: ___ FSH: ___ LH: ___
    All three secreted from adenohypophysis
  87. Peptide hormone synthesis requires gene activation producing _____.
  88. Name the larges pure endocrine gland:
  89. Give examples of positive and negative feedback regulation involving hormone produciton:
    positive feedback loops exaggerate deviation rather than reverse it negative feedback control usually regulates hormone production
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