Modern Latin America

    An attempt to re-conceptualize the christian faith from the perspective of the poor and oppressed. The liberation theology came about in the 30's and 40's, but reached it's peak in the early-mid 70's. Three elements are key to the liberation theology and it's success; political opportunity, organizational strength and insurgent conscious. Major events, such as Vatican II, Medellin and Sucre would influence the direction of the liberation theology. The Liberation Theology is significant because it shows the Church's influence in latin american and it also shows how many people were poor and oppressed; the liberation theology tried to better these people.
    A plan created by JFK in 1961 that called for economic cooperation between the U.S and Latin Amer. Its goal was to eliminate conditions that sparked revolution; such conditions are, mass poverty, exploitation and malnutrition. As a result, the U.S would give money to people who were experiencing these conditions. Along with this, the U.S set up 'schools of americas' and trained the top military forces in Latin Amer. This is significant because this would lead to many years of Military Dictatorship. In a broader sense, Alliance for Progress is significant because it arose out of the Cuban revolution and it shows the measures the U.S would go to eliminate any sense of communism.
    Military dictatorship in Brazil between 1964-1979. Episodes of torture would take place; the purpose of them is to get as much info as possible or gain a confession. The torture would start immediately as the people would be captured; coerced confessions would usually occur. The sentencing would be open to the public. Nunca Mais is significant because it shows how truth commissions were aimed at converting military dictatorial regimes to democracy.
    As a result of Fidel Castro being exiled to Mexico City, in 1953 the 26 July Movement arises. The idea was to form a guerilla army in Mexico City then go to Cuba and take down Batista. There would be two opposing sides to Batista, students involved in the 26 July Movement and the junior military. Castro would eventually get civilian support and promise the middle class two things, the federal army would stay in place and there would be presidential elections. Fidel Castro would not keep his word and many middle class Cubans would leave the country. The 26 July Movement is significant because it plays a major role in kick-starting the Cuban Revolution.
    A direct response to Vietnam. The U.S agreed with the Soviet Union that neither would ever get involved in Asia. They would then agree to not get involved in Latin America. The agreement was made in 1971. Detente was significant because it cooled down the tensions between the U.S and the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
    March 24, 1976 there was an attempt to purify the nation. This is the beginning of the Civil War. They will target free priority targets, such as Factories and Labor. The military would seize political power during the March 1976 coup. This was a response to the death of Juan Peron which left his wife in power. As the government fought back for power their involvement in Death Squads rose. This led to the separation between the people. This left everyone in the middle to choose between the government Death Squads and the Guerilla. El Proceso is significant because the government would occupy the factories, the right to strike, they expanded military jurisdiction and it was all justified in the language of purification. Also Churches and Universities were heavily censored.
    This was a peace agreement which was initiated in 1987 to settle the military conflicts in Central America. The civil rights of the people needed to be recognized. This led to the development of Reconciliation Commissions of Truth Commissions. Esquipulas II also defined the measures to promote national reconciliation, an end to hostilities, democratization, free elections, the termination of all assistance to irregular forces, negotiations on arms controls and assistance to refugees.
    During JFK and LBJ's term, the Doctrine of National Security developed as an internal problem in a response to the fear of communism. They would actively target 'subersive' civilians. It was performed towards internal subversion, which was really political opposition. These people who were targeted showed signs of being students that opposed the government, active in social movements, active in unions that were not pro-american and conservative. Also people who opposed the authoritarian regimes. All of these people that were opposing the government would be put through some kind of torture.
    in 1975 a campaign of political repression and terror implemented in the Southern cone of South America. Secret intelligence and operations system created to eliminate alleged socialist and communist movements aimed to overthrow the current government. South American military regimes coordinated intelligence information and seized, tortured, and executed political opponents in cross-border operations
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Modern Latin America
Key terms for Modern Latin America Exam