1. Preservationism vs. Conservationism
    � Roosevelt and Pinchotsided on conservation rather than preservation (planned andregulated use of forest lands for public and commercial uses)
  2. William H. Taft
    � �trustbuster� (busted twice as many asRoosevelt), conservation and irrigation efforts, Postal Savings Bank System, Payne-Aldrich Tariff (reduction of tariff, causedRepublican split)
  3. Bull Moose Party
    � party formed from Republican split byRoosevelt, more progressive values, leaving �Republican OldGuard� to control Republican party
  4. New Nationalism
    � federal government to increase power over economy and society by means of progressive reforms, developed by Roosevelt (after presidency)
  5. New Freedom
    � ideas of Wilson: small enterprise, states� rights,more active government, trustbusting, left social issues up to thestates
  6. Woodrow Wilson
    � Democratic candidate 1912, stood for antitrust, monetary change, and tariff reduction; far less active thanRoosevelt, Clayton Anti-trust Act (to enforce Sherman), Child Labor Act
  7. Federal Reserve Act
    � created Federal Reserve System, regional banks set up for twelve separate districts, final authority of each bank lay with the Federal Reserve Board, paper money to be issued�Federal Reserve Notes�
  8. Pan-Americanism
    � James G. Blaine sought to open up LatinAmerican markets to the U.S.; rejected by Latin America due tofear of U.S. dominance and satisfaction with European market
  9. Yellow journalism
    (Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst) � aimed to excite American imperialist interests; media bias,subjective representation of events
  10. Jingoism
    � belligerent nationalism against other threateningnations
  11. Secretary of State John Hay
    � ex-Lincoln secretary; worked togain Open Door Notes� acceptance from the major powers
  12. Open Door Policy
    � sought to eliminate spheres of influence andavoid European monopolies in China; unaccepted by the powers inmind
  13. Spanish American War
    (1898) � McKinley reluctant; armedintervention to free Cuba from Spain; Roosevelt�s �Rough Riders�made attack on Spanish at Cuba
  14. Explosion of USS Maine
    � meant to provide evacuationopportunity for Americans in Cuba; internal accidental explosion blamed on Spanish mines, leading to Spanish-American War
  15. Platt Amendment
    � U.S. would ensure that Cuba would be protected from European powers and maintain a place in Cubanaffairs; provided coal and naval stations
  16. US acquisitions: Philippines, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam
    � granted to U.S. at the end of Spanish-American War; Philippineswere captured after treaty, and thus not part of spoils, but kept asterritory with an inevitable movement for independence;Philippines and Hawaii steps toward Asia
  17. Naval battle in Manila Bay, Philippines
    � Admiral Deweydefeated Spanish initially; American troops (aided byAguinaldo�s insurgents) captured Manila, leading to annexation
  18. TR mediates Russo-Japanese War
    � secretly sponsored peacenegotiations so as to prevent Japanese or Russian monopoly onAsia; concerned with safety of Philippines
  19. President Theodore Roosevelt
    � military and naval preparedness
  20. Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
    � U.S. felt it was itsduty to �watch out� for the interests of other countries in theWestern hemisphere; provided justification for invasions of LatinAmerica.
  21. Panama Canal
    � needed to protect new Pacific acquisitions, U.S.took over the project from the French after overcoming Clatyton-Bulwer Treaty (prohibited exclusive control of canal) with the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
  22. �Gentlemen�s Agreement�
    (1908) � in response to Japanesediscrimination in San Fran schools; Japanese to stop laborers intoU.S., Californians forbidden to ban Japanese from public schools
  23. �Dollar Diplomacy�
    � government would protect America�sforeign investments with any force needed; under president Taft
  24. Moral Diplomacy
    � intervention in Mexican Revolution (Maderooverthrew dictator Diaz) to overthrow Madero out of fear of property confiscation, General Huerta (seen as �brute� by Wilson,sought new leader) replaced Madero
  25. Invasion of Mexico, Pancho Villa
    • � Huerta�s enemy, reluctantlysupported by U.S.; U.S. sought Villa�s submission due to terrorism,eventually assassinated; Wilson�s policy highly unpopular
    • World War I (1910-1920)
  26. Lusitania
    � British passenger liner secretly carrying ammunitionsunk by German u-boat, included American passengers
  27. Zimmerman Note
    � intercepted by Britain; Germany proposedalliance with Mexico, using bribe of return of TX, NM, and AZ;Japan included in alliance
  28. Unrestricted submarine warfare
    � Germany announced that itwould sink all (including American) ships, attempt to involve war
  29. Creel Committee
    � Committee on Public Information; aimed tosell America and the world on Wilson�s war goals; propaganda,censorship, �four-minute men� speeches, �Liberty Leagues� (spyon community)
  30. War Industries Board
    � attempted to centralize production of war materials; ineffective due to American desire for laissez-fairegovernment
  31. Conscription policies
    � Selective Service Act to require men toregister with few exceptions; women and blacks drafted/enlisted,highly successful
  32. Herbert Hoover�s Food Administration
    � relied on voluntarycompliance (no formal laws), propaganda; high prices set oncommodities to encourage production, Prohibition
  33. Wilson�s 14 points
    � public treaties, free trade, free seas, reducedarmament burdens, anti-imperialism, independence to minorities,international organization
  34. League of Nations
    � foreshadowed in 14 points, hoped toguarantee political independence and integrity of all countries
  35. Great Migration
    � mass migration northward; mainly blacksmigrating from the southern states into the north hoping for lessdiscrimination
  36. Lodge Reservations
    � 14 formal amendments to the treaty for theLeague of Nations; preserved Monroe Doctrine, Congress desiredto keep declaration of war to itself
  37. Isolationism
    � avoided league of Nations, opposed Latin Americaninvolvement
  38. Espionage Act and Sedition Act
    � fines and imprisonment for aiding the enemy or hindering U.S. military; forbade any form of criticism of the government and military
  39. Schenk v. U.S.
    � upheld constitutionality of Espionage Act;Congress right to limit free speech during times of war
  40. �Red Scare�
    (1919) � anti-communist crusades due to fear of radicalism spurred by Bolshevik rebellion
  41. Palmer Raids
    � Congressional support to raid houses of radicals believed to have connections to communism
  42. �Red Summer,� race riots
    (1919) � spurred by Great Migration,large-scale riots, lynchings, &c. The 1920s and 1930s
  43. Nativism
    � severe immigration laws to discourage and discriminateagainst foreigners, believed to erode old-fashioned Americanvalues
  44. Birth of a Nation
    � spawned resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan based on The Clansman
  45. Ku Klux Klan
    � spread quickly; opposed everything that was notWhite Anglo-Saxon Protestant (WASP) (and conservative),Stephenson�s faults and jail sentence led to demise
  46. National Origins Act
    (1924) � reduced quota, reduced numbersfrom eastern and southern Europe, Asians banned, Canadians andLatin Americans exempt
  47. Sacco & Vanzetti Trial
    � prejudiced jury sentenced them todeath, caused riots around the world, new trial denied
  48. Scopes Trial
    � Darwinian (influenced by jazz age and newscientific ideas) against Fundamentalist (the Bible andCreationism); John Scopes convicted for teaching Darwinism(defended by Clarence Darrow); Scopes found guilty
  49. Prohibition, rise of organized crime
    � supported by women andchurches, instituted by Volstead Act, lacked enforcement; bootlegging and speakeasies, Al Capone and John Dillinger � gangsters and organized crime (casual breaking of the law)
  50. Frederick W. Taylor,
    • Scientific Management
    • � efficient workingmethods to increase productivity; usually resulted in lower wages(hated by workers), power to managers
  51. Henry Ford�s assembly line
    � mass production of the Model-T,workers as potential consumers (raise wages), supported other industries and raised employment
  52. Bruce Barton:
    • The Man Nobody Knows
    • � glorification of business, Jesus as a businessman, relationship between religion andmanufacturing
  53. Radio
    � new industry, leisure time with family, sports industrystimulated, political advertisements, newscasts, broadcast of music
  54. Equal Rights Amendment
    (ERA) � Alice Paul; shockedtraditionalism, League of Women Voters supported; neworganization of women who were now more independent
  55. Flappers
    � expressed new freedom of women, sexual revolution
  56. Margaret Sanger & birth control
    � illegal, but widely accepted;with new promiscuity
  57. Jazz
    � dance music, slave spirituals adapted into improvisation andragtime; jazz migrated along with blacks in the Great Migration
  58. �Lost Generation�
    � new generation of writers outside of Protestantism, resentment of ideals betrayed by society; Fitzgerald(despised materialism, Great Gatsby), Hemingway(disillusionment, war experience), Lewis (against upper class � Babbit and Mainstreet), Faulkner (stream of consciousness), T.S.Eliot
  59. Harlem Renaissance
    authors: Langston Hughes, McKay, Zora Neale Hurston, Countee Cullet � praise and expression of black culture of the time
  60. Marcus Garvey, United Negro Improvement Association
    (UNIA) � �Back to Africa� movement for racial pride andseparatism; inspired self-confidence in blacks
  61. Charles Lindbergh
    � considered a hero for his solo crossing of theAtlantic by plane
  62. Washington Disarmament Conference
    (1921) � US, Britain,Japan, France, and Italy to reduce naval tonnage and haltconstruction for 10 years; US and Japan to respect Pacific territorialholdings, Kellog-Briand Pact to �outlaw war�
  63. Dawes Plan
    (1924) � to make German reparations from WWI moreaccessible to Germans; evacuation of troops from Germany,reorganization of the Reichsbank, and foreign loans
  64. Conservative policies of Harding and Coolidge
    � lowering of income taxes for wealthy (trickle-down economics), refusal tocreate higher prices to help farmers (McNary-Haugen Bill)
  65. Fordney-McCumber Tariff (1922) & Smoot-Hawley Tariff (1930)
    � raised tariffs extremely high on manufactured goods; benefited domestic manufacturers, but limited foreign trade
  66. Teapot Dome scandal
    � Albert Fall accused of accepting bribesfor access to government oil in Teapot Dome, Wyoming
  67. Herbert Hoover, secretary of commerce
    � known as �wartimefood czar;� created recreation policies and reintroduced leisureculture and conservation ethic to get Americans escaping the citiesand improve tourism, &c.
  68. Andrew Mellon, secretary of the treasury
    � introduced the�trickle-down� economics theory in order to promote business andincrease money available for speculation
  69. Farm crisis
    � agricultural depression as precursor to thedepression; unheeded omen of problems in the economic structure(prices too low � too much supply for the demand)
  70. Causes of the depression
    � rise in stock prices and speculation,decline of construction industry, mistaken �trickle-down�economics, reliance on credit
  71. Stock market crash
    (1929) � stock prices fell drastically;without buyers, the stocks became essentially worthless; cause bank crashes, &c.
  72. Hoover�s policy of voluntarism �
    emphasized importance of private charities to help the depression
  73. Hoovervilles
    � sets of cardboard box houses that epitomized thecountry�s blame on Hoover for the cause of the Depression
  74. Bonus Army
    � veterans from WWI sought their pensions beforethey were too old to use them; they were denied and were run outof Washington (violently, by MacArthur)
  75. Reconstruction Finance Corporation
    (RFC) � attempted to boosteconomy by making loans to banks and insurance companies,hoping to restart them
  76. President Franklin Roosevelt
    � introduced his �New Deal,� wonelection by a relative landslide (he was not Hoover, whom the public now did not trust)
  77. New Deal
    � FDR�s plan (although vague during the campaign) torestart the economy and pull America out of the Great Depression
  78. �Brain trust�
    � FDR�s inner circle of experts rather than just politicians in the cabinet
  79. �Hundred days�
    • � accomplished great number of relief, recovery,and reform efforts; sought practical solutions to the problems
    • byexperimentation
  80. Emergency Banking Relief Act
    � four-day banking holiday tocreate controlled inflation, followed by reopening of sound banks, and reorganization of unsound banks
  81. �First� New Deal Programs
    : 1933-35, improved (but notrecovered) economy
  82. National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) & National RecoveryAdministration (NRA) �
    prevented extreme competition, labor-management disputes, and over-production; federallycoordinated consensus of business leaders (Hugh Johnson) toregulate businesses(wages,limits, working conditions)

    • Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
    • � subsidies to farmers todecrease production and thus increase prices
  83. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) �
    hydroelectric power toriver valley; brought social and economic development to very poor area
  84. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) �
    employed young joblessmen with government projects on work relief and environment
  85. Federal Emergency Relief Act (FERA) �
    provided more fundsto state and local relief efforts
  86. Public Works Administration (PWA)
    � Harold Ickles, provided public construction projects
  87. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) � insureddeposits < $5000, reassured American public of the worth of banks
  88. �Second� New Deal Programs
    : 1935-38, reform-minded, more political
  89. Social Security Act of 1935 (SSA) � used withheldmoney from payrolls to provide aid to the unemployed,industrial accident victims, and young mothers; principle of government responsibility for social welfare
    • Works Progress Administration (WPA) �
    • HarryHopkins; provide work for unemployed and construct publicworks, &c. through Emergency Relief Appropriation Act; muchlike Civil Works Administration
  90. Wagner Act / National Labor Relations Act � collective bargaining rights, closed shops permitted (where workers must join unions), outlawed anti-union tactics
  91. Fair Labor Standards Act �
    banned child labor,established minimum wage
  92. Keynesian economics
    � philosophy that deficit spending during adepression would increase purchasing power and stimulateeconomy; FDR disagreed with the policy at first and borrowedmoney to cover deficits
  93. Indian Reorganization Act
    (1934) � halted sale of tribal lands,enabled tribes to regain unallocated lands; repealed DawesSeveralty Act of 1887; helped secure Indians� entry into New Dealassociations; led by John Collier
  94. Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor
    � first female cabinetmember
  95. Butler v. U.S.
    � killed the AAA, although FDR insisted oncontinuing by creating smaller state-level AAAs
  96. Schechter v. U.S.
    � unconstitutionalized the NRA due to delegationof legislative authority from Congress to executive
  97. Court Packing
    � Judiciary Reorganization Bill; FDR�s attempt to put in extra judges who would support him without doubt
  98. �Okies� and �Arkies�
    � Americans who were forced out of their homes in Oklahoma and Arkansas (respectively) due to the duststorms and drought known as the Dust Bowl
  99. Deportations of Mexicans
    � nationalists against foreign non-English speaking workers (took jobs away from American men);encouraged to leave the U.S.
  100. Critics of FDR
    : Father Charles Coughlin (benefited only wealthy people and corporations), Huey Long (�share our wealth�), FrancisTownshend (Old Age Revolving Pension)
  101. Split of AFL in 1935
    � loss of members due to new following of CIO and discrimination
  102. Congress of Industrial Organizations
    (CIO) � created by John L.Lewis for unskilled labor, organized �sit-down strike� against GMto work for recognition
  103. Dorothea Lange
    � hired to photograph ordinary Americansexperiencing the depression World War II (1920-1945)
  104. Good Neighbor Policy
    � withdrawal of American troops fromforeign nations (especially Latin America) to improve internationalrelations and unite western hemisphere; Clark Memorandum(rebukes the �big stick�); peaceful resolution of Mexican oil fields
  105. Isolationism in 1920s & 1930s
    � Americans concerned witheconomic depression; sought to avoid European involvement, noapparent immediate threats
  106. Neutrality Acts, 1935-37
    � prohibited aiding of belligerent nations, banned civilian involvement; limited power of president duringinternational war, built up armed forces
  107. Quarantine Speech, 1937
    � FDR encouraged democracies toquarantine their opponents (economic embargos); criticized byisolationists
  108. Neutrality Act, 1939
    � allowed sale of weaponry to democracieson �cash-and-carry� basis, avoided full-blown war; danger zones proclaimed; solved American unemployment crisis
  109. �Four Freedoms� speech
    � FDR asked for increased authority toaid Britain; freedom of speech/expression, of religion, from want,from fear; resulted in Lend-Lease
  110. Lend-Lease Act (1941)
    � President to offer military supplies tonations �vital to the defense of the US�; ended US neutrality(economic war against Germany); Hitler began to sink Americanships (limited scale)
  111. Pearl Harbor
    � Japanese bombing of ships in harbor; resulted inFDR�s request for declaration of war against Japan; Germany andItaly responded with declarations of war
  112. First American strategy in WWII
    � FDR and Churchill agreed todefeat Germany first rather than concentrate on Japan
  113. Important WWII Battles:
    Midway (US Signal Corps, turning point of war in the Pacific), D-Day (Eisenhower�s amphibiousinvasion of Normandy, led to depletion of German forces),
  114. Stalingrad (Russians defeated Germans, saved Moscow andLeningrad, turning point in Europe)
  115. Japanese internment
    � fear of Japanese-Americans as traitors,sent off (by law) to internment camps; removal of deemed threatsin military areas
  116. Reasons for US to drop atomic bombs
    � risk of too manycasualties and high costs for hand-to-hand combat/invasion,Japanese surrender unlikely
  117. Yalta Conference (1945)
    � established world organization; SovietUnion pledged to allow democratic procedures in Eastern Europe; pledge broken, led to Cold War
  118. Potsdam Conference (1945)
    � decided to punish war crimes,established program for de-Nazification of Germany
  119. The Homefront
    � westward migration of workers (new economicopportunities, esp. aircraft industry), high rates of divorce andfamily/juvenile violence, women encouraged to work in factories,still held inferior to men
  120. Rationing
    � Americans at home reminded to conserve materialsin all aspects of life to support the military; resulted in saving upof money to cause economic boom after war
  121. Rosie the Riveter
    � symbol of women workers during the war
  122. John L. Lewis
    � through CIO, led three coal mine strikes (some of the very few strikes during the time period)
  123. Braceroprogram
    � brought in Mexicans for temporary jobs,concentrated in southern CA, given extremely poor workingconditions (as they were not American citizens)
  124. Zoot Suit riots
    � racism riots against Mexican laborers (importedfor jobs)
  125. A. Philip Randolph and the March on Washington
    � ledBrotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters: threatened a siege on DC if FDR did not agree to end discrimination in military
  126. Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC)
    � prohibiteddiscrimination in any government-related work; increased black employment
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