1. Separatist vs. non-Separatist Puritans
    � Radical Calvinists againstthe Church of England; Separatists (Pilgrims) argued for a break from the Church of England, led the Mayflower, and establishedthe settlement at Plymouth
  2. Northwest Passage
    � believed to provide shortcut from Atlantic toPacific, searched for by Giovanni de Verrazano for Francis I in therace to Asian wealth
  3. Conversion Experience
    � required of members of the PuritanChurch; took the place of baptism required by the Catholic Church
  4. Social Reciprocity
    � society naturally punishes criminalsindiscriminantly
  5. Church of England
    � Protestant church led by the king of England,independent of Catholic Church; tended toward Catholicism duringreign of Catholic royalty
  6. Atlantic slave trade
    � often debtors sold to slave traders by Africankings seeking riches; Columbian Exchange
  7. Jamestown
    � first permanent English settlement in the Americas(1607), along James River
  8. John Smith
    � introduced work ethic to Jamestown colony, sanitation,diplomat to local Native American tribes; had fought Spanish andTurks
  9. Pocahontas
    � key to English-Native American relationship, died inEngland in 1617
  10. Mayflower Compact
    � foundation for self-government laid out by the first Massachusetts settlers before arriving on land
  11. John Winthrop
    � Calvinist, devised concept of �city on a hill�(�A Model of Christian Charity�); founded highly successful townsin Massachusetts Bay
  12. City on a Hill�
    � exemplary Christian community, rich toshow charity, held to Calvinistic beliefs
  13. Indentured servants
    � settlers to pay the expenses of aservant�s voyage and be granted land for each person they broughtover; headright system
  14. Maryland Act of Religious Toleration (1649)
    � mandated thetoleration of all Christian denominations in Maryland, even thoughMaryland was founded for Catholics (but majority was protestant)
  15. James I, Charles I
    � reluctant to give colonists their owngovernment, preferred to appoint royal governors
  16. William Penn and the Quakers
    � settled in Pennsylvania, believed the �Inner Light� could speak through any person and ranreligious services without ministers
  17. Roger Williams
    � challenged New Englanders to completelyseparate Church from State, as the State would corrupt the church
  18. Anne Hutchinson
    � challenged New England Calvinistministers� authority, as they taught the good works for salvation of Catholicism
  19. The Half-Way Covenant
    � New Englanders who did not wishto relate their conversion experiences could become half-way saintsso that their children would be able to have the opportunity to besaints
  20. Bacon�s Rebellion
    • � rebels felt the governor of Virginia failedto protect the frontier from the Native Americans
    • Independence (1763-1789)
  21. Navigation Acts
    � only English and American ships allowed tocolonial ports; dissent began in 1763
  22. Mercantilism
    � ensured trade with mother country, nationalism;too restrictive on colonial economy, not voted on by colonists
  23. Charles II, James II
    � tried to rule as absolute monarchswithout using Parliament, little to no sympathy for coloniallegislature
  24. William and Mary
    � ended the Dominion of New England,gave power back to colonies
  25. Dominion of New England
    � combined Massachusetts, NewHampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Plymouth (and later Jersey and New York) into one �supercolony� governed by Sir Edmond Andros, a �supergovernor�
  26. The Glorious Revolution
    � William and Mary kicked James II outof England (exiled into France), allowed more power to thelegislatures
  27. James Oglethorpe
    � established colony of Georgia as a place for honest debtors
  28. The Enlightenment
    � emphasis on human reason, logic, andscience (acquired, not nascent, knowledge); increased followers of Christianity
  29. Benjamin Franklin
    � connected the colonies to Britain, opposed tounnecessary unfair taxation; strong influence on Albany Plan
  30. The Great Awakening
    � began by Edwards to return to Puritanism,increased overall religious involvement, gave women more activeroles in religion, more and more ministers sprouted up throughoutthe country; mainly affected towns and cities
  31. Deists
    � believed that God created the universe to act throughnatural laws; Franklin, Jefferson, Paine
  32. George Whitefield
    � powerful speaker, toured the country andinspired many into Christianity
  33. Jonathan Edwards
    � Puritan minister, led revivals, stressedimmediate repentance
  34. New Lights vs. Old Lights
    � New Lights brought new ideas,rejected by Old Lights; both sought out institutions independentof each other
  35. Albany Plan of Union
    � colonies proposed colonial confederationunder lighter British rule (crown-appointed president, �GrandCouncil�); never took effect
  36. French and Indian War
    � French threat at the borders was nolonger present, therefore the colonies didn�t need English protection; more independent stand against Britain
  37. Proclamation of 1763
    � prohibited settlements west of Appalachian, restriction on colonial growth
  38. Salutary Neglect
    � Parliament took minor actions in the colonies,allowing them to experiment with and become accustomed to self-government, international trade agreements
  39. Writs of Assistance
    � search warrants on shipping to reducesmuggling; challenged by James Otis
  40. Townshend Act (1767)
    � similar to Navigatio; raised money to paycolonial officials by American taxes; led to Boston boycott of English luxuries
  41. Sugar Act
    � increased tariff on sugar (and other imports), attemptedto harder enforce existing tariffs
  42. Stamp Act
    � taxes on all legal documents to support British troops,not approved by colonists through their representatives
  43. Stamp Act Congress
    � held in New York, agreed to not importBritish goods until Stamp Act was repealed
  44. Virginia Resolves
    � �no taxation without representation,�introduced by Patrick Henry
  45. Currency Act
    � prohibited colonies from issuing paper money,destabilized colonial economy
  46. Virtual Representation
    � all English subjects are represented inParliament, including those not allowed to vote
  47. The Loyal Nine
    � group of Bostonians in opposition to theStamp Act, sought to drive stamp distributors from the city
  48. Sons of Liberty
    � organized and controlled resistance againstParliamentary acts in less violent ways (strength of martyrdom),advocated nonimportation
  49. Declaratory Act
    � allowed Parliament to completely legislateover the colonies, limited colonists� say
  50. Boston Massacre
    � British soldiers shot into crowd of snowballfight; two of nine soldiers (defended by John Adams) found guilty of manslaughter
  51. Committees of Correspondence
    � committees appointed fromdifferent colonies to communicate on matters; asserted rights to self-government, cooperation between colonies
  52. Tea Act (1773)
    � intended to save British East India Companyfrom bankruptcy, could sell directly to consumers rather thanthrough wholesalers (lowered prices to compete with smuggled tea)
  53. Boston Tea Party
    � peaceful destruction of British tea inBoston Harbor by colonists disguised as Indians
  54. Quebec Acts
    � former French subjects in Canada allowed tokeep Catholicism, while American colonists expected to participatein the Church of England
  55. Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts)
    � in reaction to the BostonTea Party; closing of Boston Harbor, revocation of Massachusettscharter (power to governor), murder in the name of royal authoritywould be tried in England or another colony
  56. Suffolk Resolves
    � organize militia, end trade with Britain,refuse to pay taxes to Britain
  57. Olive Branch Petition
    � politely demanded from the king acease-fire in Boston, repeal of Coercive Acts, guarantee of Americanrights
  58. Thomas Paine,
    • Common Sense
    • � stressed to the American people British maltreatment and emphasize a need for revolution;appealed to American emotions
  59. George Washington
    � American commander-in-chief; first president, set precedents for future presidents, put down WhiskeyRebellion (enforced Whiskey Tax), managed first presidentialcabinet, carefully used power of executive to avoid monarchial stylerule
  60. Whigs (Patriots)
    � most numerous in New England, fought for independence
  61. Tories (Loyalists)
    � fought for return to colonial rule, usuallyconservative (educated and wealthy)
  62. British strengths and weaknesses
    � British citizenshipoutnumbered colonies�, large navy and professional army; exhaustedresources (Hessians hired), national debt
  63. Colonial strengths and weaknesses
    � fair amount of troops, shortguerilla tactics, strong leaders (Washington); nonprofessionalarmy that could not handle long battles
  64. Battle of Saratoga
    � American general Horatio Gates wasvictorious over British general Burgoyne
  65. Valley Forge
    � scarce supplies (food and clothing), armymotivated by von Steuben
  66. Battle of Yorktown
    � last major battle; surrender of Cornwallis,led King George III to officially make peace with the colonies
  67. Treaty of Paris (1783)
    � full American independence, territorywest of Appalachian ceded to America, loyalists to be compensatedfor seized property, fishing rights off of Newfoundland
  68. 68.
    • Connecticut Compromise
    • � advocated by Roger Sherman, proposed two independently-voting senators per state andrepresentation in the House based on population
    • Virginia Plan
    • � bicameral congressional representation based on population
    • New Jersey Plan
    • � equal representation in unicameral congress
  69. Commerce Compromise
    � congress could tax imports but notexports
  70. Federalism
    � strong central government provided by power divided between state and national governments, checks and balances, amendable constitution
  71. Changes in the Constitution from the Articles
    � stronger union of states, equal and population-based representation, simplemajority vote (with presidential veto), regulation of foreign andinterstate commerce, execution by president, power to enact taxes,federal courts, easier amendment process
  72. Articles� achievement �
    system for orderly settlement of West
  73. Elastic Clause (�necessary and proper�)
    � gives Congress the power to pass laws it deems necessary to enforce the Constitution
  74. Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists
    � Anti-Federalists wantedstates� rights, bill of rights, unanimous consent, reference to religion,more power to less-rich and common people; Federalists wantedstrong central government, more power to experienced, separation of church and state, stated that national government would protectindividual rights
  75. The Federalist Papers
    • � written anonymously by Hamilton, Jay,and Madison; commentary on Constitution, republicanism extendedover large territory
    • Post-Independence and Critical Period (1789-1800)
  76. Judiciary Act of 1789
    � established federal district courts thatfollowed local procedures, Supreme Court had final jurisdiction;compromise between nationalists and advocates for states� rights
  77. Bill of Rights
    � protected rights of individual from the power of the central government
  78. Bank of the United States
    � Hamilton�s plan to solveRevolutionary debt, Assumption highly controversial, pushed his plan through Congress, based on loose interpretation of Constitution
  79. Report on Public Credit
    � proposed by Hamilton to repair war debts; selling of securities and federal lands, assumption of statedebts, set up the first National Bank
  80. Report on Manufactures (tariffs)
    � Hamilton praised efficientfactories with few managers over many workers, promoteemigration, employment opportunities, applications of technology
  81. Strict vs. Loose interpretation of the Constitution
    � looseinterpretation allowed for implied powers of Congress (such as the National Bank), strict interpretation implied few powers to Congress
  82. Whiskey Rebellion
    � Western Pennsylvanian farmers� violent protest against whiskey excise tax, Washington sent large army to put down revolt, protests to be limited to non-violent
  83. Citizen Genet
    � Edmond Genet contributed to polarization of the new nation by creating his American Foreign Legion in thesouth, which was directed to attack Spanish garrisons in NewOrleans and St. Augustine
  84. Impressment
    � British Navy would take American sailors andforce them to work for Britain
  85. Jay�s Treaty
    � provided for evacuation of English troops from posts in the Great Lakes
  86. Nullification
    � states could refuse to enforce the federal lawsthey deemed unconstitutional
  87. Federalists and Republicans
    � the two political parties thatformed following Washington�s presidency; Federalists for stronger central government, Republicans for stronger state governments
  88. Washington�s Farewell Address
    � warned against permanentforeign alliances and political parties, called for unity of the country,established precedent of two-term presidency
  89. Neutrality Proclamation of 1793
    • � response to French attemptsfor alliance with US
    • American society during the Revolution
    • � British-occupiedcities, new governments, fighting by any with experience, loanedmoney, African-Americans and Native Americans involved
  90. Articles of Confederation
    � states joined for foreign affairs,Congress reigned supreme (lacked executive and judicial), one vote per state, 2/3 vote for bills, unanimous for amendments; too much power to states, unable to regulate commerce or taxes
  91. Virginia Statute on Religious Freedom (1786)
    � foundationfor First Amendment, offered free choice of religion, not influenced by state
  92. Northwest Ordinance of 1787
    � defined process for territoriesto become states (population reached 60,000), forbade slavery in thenew territories
  93. Alexander Hamilton
    � pushed for Assumption (federalgovernment to assume state debts), pushed creation of the NationalBank (most controversial), loose interpretation of Constitution,leader of Federalist Party
  94. James Madison
    � strong central government, separation of powers, �extended republic�
  95. Shays�s Rebellion
    � mistreated farmers, fear of mobocracy,forced people to think about central government
  96. XYZ Affair
    � French foreign minister (Talleyrand) demanded bribe in order to meet with American peace commission, madeAdams unpopular among the people
  97. Alien and Sedition Acts
    � meant to keep governmentunquestioned by critics, particularly of the Federalists
  98. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
    � argued that states hadthe right to determine whether or not the laws passed by Congresswere constitutional
  99. 12thAmendment
    � required separate and distinct ballots for presidential and vice presidential candidates Citizen Genet � Edmond Genet contributed to polarization of the new nation bycreating his American Foreign Legion in the south, which wasdirected to attack Spanish garrisons in New Orleans and St.Augustine
  100. Second Great Awakening
    • � emphasis on personal salvation,emotional response, and individual faith; women and blacks;nationalism (Manifest Destiny)
    • Jefferson�s Administration and Growth of Nationalism (1800-1820)
  101. Election of 1800
    � Adams, Jefferson, and Burr: Adams lost,Jefferson and Burr tied, Hamilton convinced other Federalists tovote for Jefferson to break the tie
  102. Barbary Pirates
    � North African Muslim rulers solved budget problems through piracy and tributes in Mediterranean, obtainedfees from most European powers
  103. Midnight judges
    � judges appointed to Supreme Court byAdams in the last days of his presidency to force them uponJefferson, Marshall among those appointed
  104. Marbury v. Madison
    � John Marshall declared that the SupremeCourt could declare federal laws unconstitutional
  105. Lewis and Clark expedition
    � Meriwether Lewis and WilliamClark sent by Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Territory on�Voyage of Discovery�
  106. Non-Intercourse Act
    � sought to encourage domestic Americanmanufacturing
  107. Macon�s Bill No. 2
    � president has power to cease trade withany foreign country that violated American neutrality
  108. Embargo Act (1807)
    � prohibited exports (and imports) basedin American ports, most controversial Jefferson legislation
  109. War hawks
    � Clay and Calhoun, eager for war with Britain(War of 1812)
  110. Henry Clay and the American System
    � Henry Clayaimed to make the US economically independent from Europe (e.g.,support internal improvements, tariff protection, and new national bank)
  111. John C. Calhoun
    � opposed Polk�s high-handedness, avidSouthern slave-owner (right to own property, slaves as property)
  112. William Henry Harrison
    � military hero from War of 1812;elected president 1840, died of pneumonia a month later, gave presidency to Tyler
  113. Battle of Tippecanoe
    � decisive victory in the War of 1812 byHarrison over Tecumseh, used in Harrison�s campaign for presidency
  114. Hartford Convention
    � December 1814, opposed War of 1812,called for one-term presidency, northern states threatened to secedeif their views were left unconsidered next to those of southern andwestern states, supported nullification, end of Federalist Party
  115. Essex case
    � Federalist cause leading up to Hartford Convention
  116. Era of Good Feelings
    � Monroe presidency, national unity behindMonroe, post-war boom (foreign demand for cotton, grain, andtobacco), Depression of 1819 (cheap British imports, tightenedcredit, affected West the most)
  117. James Monroe
    � provided country with a break from partisan politics, Missouri Compromise, issued Monroe Doctrine
  118. Missouri Compromise (1820)
    � Maine as free state, Missouri asslave state, slavery prohibited north of 36�30�
  119. Tallmadge Amendment
    � no further introduction of slaves intoMissouri, all children born to slaves to become free at 25
  120. Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817)
    � agreement between US and Britain toremove armed fleets from the Great Lakes
  121. Adams-Onis Treaty
    � remainder of Florida sold by Spain to US, boundary of Mexico defined
  122. Monroe Doctrine
    � Europeans should not interfere with affairs inWestern Hemisphere, Americans to stay out of foreign affairs;supported Washington�s goal for US neutrality in Americas
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