Av I

  1. What viral disease is caused by Paramyxovirus type 1 and causes clinical signs of respiratory, deformed egg production, conjunctivitis, and encephalitis?
    Exotic Newcastle Disease
  2. How is Exotic Newcastle Disease diagnosed?
    • Oropharyngeal swab with Real-time PCR
    • Paired serology
    • Virus isolation in chick embryo
  3. How is Exotic Newcastle Disease controlled in the US?
  4. What viral disease is caused by Orthomyxovirus (type A) has hemagglutinin subtypes H5 and H7?
    Avian Influenza
  5. What are some clinical signs associated with low path avian influenza?
    • Depression, respiratory
    • Respiratory exudates
    • Diarrhea
    • Decreased egg production
    • Hyperemia
  6. What are some clinical signs associated with high path avian influenza?
    • Sudden onset high mortality
    • Depression
    • +/- Nervous signs
    • Respiratory exudates
    • Reproductive tract regression
    • Vasculitis
  7. How is Avian Influenza diagnosed?
    • Pharyngreal/Cloacal swabs with Real-time PCR
    • Serology
    • Antigen capture ELISA
  8. What organization helps monitor backyard and live market poultry for avian influenza?
    National Animal Laboratory Health Network
  9. How is Avian Influenza controlled?
    • Monitoring by serology and real-time PCR
    • Eradication
  10. What viral disease is caused by a coronavirus resulting in coughing, sneezing, rales, nasal and ocular discharge, decline in egg production and mortality from secondary E. coli infection?
    Infectious Bronchitis
  11. What are some lesions associated with Infectious bronchitis?
    • Catarrhal inflammation of upper respiratory
    • Swollen kidneys and uroliths
    • Misshapen eggs
  12. How is Infectious bronchitis diagnosed?
    • Visus isolation in chick embryo
    • RT-PCR
    • Serum neutralization, ELISA
  13. How is Infectious bronchitis controlled?
    • Modified live vaccines (serotype strains Mass, Conn, Ark....)
    • Inactivated vaccines used on hens
  14. What viral disease is caused by a herpesvirus and has clinical signs of marked dyspnea, coughing, head extension, watery eyes, conjunctiva, bloody mucous and blood on face and feathers?
    Infectious Laryngotracheitis
  15. How is Infectious laryngotracheitis diagnosed?
    • Histopathology
    • Virus Isolation
    • PCR
  16. How is Infectious laryngotracheitis controlled?
    • Two live attenuated virus vaccines
    • Vectored/recombinant vaccines
    • CEO (chick embryo origin) vaccine (reverts to virulence, no good)
  17. What are the etiological agents behind Pullorum Disease?
    • Salmonella pullorum
    • Salmonella gallinarum
  18. What plan was put into action to prevent and control Pullorum Disease?
    National Poultry Improvement Plan
  19. What is the result of Pullorum disease in suscpetible chicks and poultry?
    • Fatal enteritis
    • Septicemia
  20. What human pathogen can cause an inapparent infection in hens and transmitted to humans through the egg yolk?
    Salmonella enteritidis
  21. If a farm tests positive for Salmonella enteritidis, what must be done?
    Submit 1000 eggs (3 times at 2-week intervals)
  22. What common GI organism in poultry is found in poultry dust at a concentration of 1 million organisms/gram?
    E. coli
  23. In what type of birds is E. coli a problem?
  24. What is the etiological agent behind necrotic enteritis?
    Clostridium perfringens type C
  25. What animals are generally infected with necrotic enteritis?
    Chickens 2-8 weeks
  26. What feeds promote Clostridium perfringens type C overgrowth?
    • Animal by products
    • Wheat diets
  27. What lesions are associated with necrotic enteritis?
    • Fibrinonecrotic enteritis
    • Hepatic infarction
  28. How is necrotic enteritis diagnosed?
    • Gross lesions
    • Histopathology
    • Isolation of C. perfringens is not diagnostic
  29. How can necrotic enteritis be prevented or controlled?
    • Diet formulation
    • Identify concurrent disease stress
    • Antibiotics
  30. What is the etiological agent that causes Chronic Respiratory Disease in galliformes?
    Mycoplasma gallisepticum
  31. What is the etiological agent that causes synovitis and respiratory disease in chickens and turkeys?
    Mycoplasma synoviae
  32. How is Mycoplasmosis diagnosed?
    • Serology (Rapid plate agglt, ELISA, and HI)
    • PCR
    • Isolation
  33. What is the most common final pathogen in many species of poultry?
    Escherichia coli
  34. What are some respiratory viruses that will cause increased host susceptibility to E. coli?
    • Newcastle dz
    • Infectious bronchitis
    • Pneumovirus infection
    • Avian influenza
  35. What are some factors that will cause increased host susceptibility to E. coli, other than respiratory viruses?
    • Mycoplasma
    • Bordetella
    • Ammonia
    • Respiratory cryptosporidium
    • Bursal dz
    • Chicken infectious anemia
  36. How can you prevent an E. coli infection?
    • Identify stress or underlying condition
    • Closed water systems
    • E. coli vaccines
  37. What is the etiological agent that causes Infectious Coryza?
    Avibacterium (Haemophilus) paragallinarum
  38. What are some clinical signs associated with Infectious Coryza?
    • Nasal discharge
    • Facial edema
    • Conjunctivitis
    • Sinusitis
  39. How is Infectious Coryza diagnosed?
    Culture or PCR
  40. What co-pathogen is likely with Infectious coryza?
    Mycoplasma gallisepticum
  41. How is Infectious coryza prevented or controlled?
    • Biosecurity
    • Bacterin
  42. What is the etiological agent that is the cause of Fowl Cholera?
    Pasteurella multocida
  43. What species are affected by Fowl Cholera?
    • Turkeys (all ages)
    • Chickens (mature)
    • Ducks and geese
    • Quail
  44. What are some ways fowl cholera is prevented and controlled?
    • Vaccination
    • Vector control
    • Water sanitation
    • Biosecurity and sanitation
  45. What virus causes generalized T lymphocyte deficiency leading to immunosuppression in young chicks (thymus is the organ affected)?
    Chicken Anemia Virus
  46. What virus causes generalized B lymphocyte deficiency leading to immunosuppression in young chickens (Bursa of Fabricus is the organ affected)?
    Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV)
  47. What type of virus causes chicken infectious anemia?
    Chicken Anemia Virus (Girovirus)
  48. What type of virus causes Infectious Bursal Disease?
    Infectious bursal disease virus (Birnavirus)
  49. How is chicken infectious anemia diagnosed?
    • Virus isolation
    • Viral DNA detection
    • Serology
    • Histopath
  50. How is chicken infectious anemia treated and controlled?
    • No treatment
    • Attenuated vaccine in water (14-18 weeks of age to breeders)
  51. What are some clinical signs associated with infectious bursal disease?
    • Depressed growth
    • Immunosuppression
    • Anorexia
    • Depression
    • Diarrhea, dehydration
    • Bursa acutely swollen
  52. How is infectious bursal disease diagnosed?
    • Bursa atrophy
    • Virus isolation
    • RT-PCR
    • Serology
  53. How is infectious bursal disease treated and diagnosed?
    • No treatment
    • Vaccinate breeders with live and killed vaccine
    • Vaccinate chicks in ovo (day 18) and at 1 day of age
  54. What herpesvirus can cause an immunosuppression, peripheral neuritis, and lymphosarcoma in young chicks?
    Marek's disease
  55. How is Marek's disease prevented?
    Vaccination at first day of age or in ovo at 18 days
  56. What type of viruses cause avian leukosis, that can lead to lymphosarcoma in mature to aged chickens?
  57. What clinical signs are associated with avian pox?
    • Conjunctivitis
    • Skin, eyelids, mouth and trachea lesions
  58. How is avian pox diagnosed?
    • Histopath
    • Virus isolation
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