Intro to Sonography

  1. Word Root
    contains the basic meaning of a term. This word part usually, but not always, indicates the involved body part. (i.e. gastr meaning stomach)
  2. Combining form
    word root with a vowel at the end so that a suffix beginning wit a consonant can be added. When a combing form appears alone, it's shown with a slash (/) between the word root and the combining vowel. (i.e. combing form of stomach is gastr/o)
  3. Suffix
    usually, but not always, indicates the procedure, condition, disorder, or disease. A suffix always comes at the end of each word.
  4. Prefix
    usually, but not always, indicates a location, time, number, or status. A prefix always comes at the beginning of a word.
  5. Cyan/o is what color?

    Medical example: cyanosis is a blue discoloration of the skin cause by lack of adequate oxygen in the blood ( cyan means blue, and osis means abnormal or disease.)
  6. Erythr/o means what color?

    Medical example: erythrocyte,a red blood cell
  7. Leuk/o means what color?

    • Medical example: leukocyte, white blood cell
  8. Melan/o is what color?

    Medical example: melanosis is any condition of unusual deposits of black pigment in body tissues or organs.
  9. Poli/o is what color?

    Medical exmaple: poliomyelitis is a viral infection of the gray matter of the spinal cord (poli/o means gray, myel means spinal cord, and itis means inflammation)
  10. Pathology
    the study of all aspects of diseases.
  11. Suffixes:

    pain and suffering

    examples: gastralgia and gastrodynia means pain in the stomach, or a stomach ache.
  12. Suffixes:


    Example: gastritis is the inflammation of the stomach
  13. Suffixes:

    abnormal softening

    example: arteriomalacia is the abnormal softening of the walls of the arteries
  14. Suffixes:


    exmaple: hepatomegaly is the abnormal enlargement of the liver
  15. Suffixes:

    tissue death

    example: arterionecrosis is the tissue death of an artery or arteries.
  16. Suffixes:

    abnormal hardening

    example: ateriosclerosis is the abnormal hardening of the wallss of an artery or arteries
  17. Suffixes:

    abnormal narrowing

    example: arteriostenosis is the abnormal narrowing of the walls of an artery or ateries
  18. Suffixes:

    a surgical puncture to remove fluid for diagnostic purposes or to remove excess fluid

    example: abdominocentesis is the surgical puncture of the abdominal cavity tp remove fluid
  19. Suffixes:

    the process of producing a picture or record

    example: angiography is the process of producing a radiographics tudy of the blood vessels after the injection of a contrast medium to make blood vessels visible
  20. Suffixes:

    a picture or record

    example: angiogram is the film produced by an angiography
  21. Suffixes:

    surgical repair

    example: myoplasty is the surgical repair of muscle
  22. Suffixes:

    visual examination

    example: arthroscopy is the visual examination of the internal sturcture of a joint
  23. Suffixes:

    bleeding; however they are most often used to describe sudden, severe bleeding

    example: hemorrhage is the los of large amounts of blood in a short time
  24. Suffixes:

    surgical suturing to close a wound and includes the use of sutures, staples, or surgical glue

    example: myorrhaphy is the surgical suturing of a muscle wound
  25. Suffixes:

    flow or discharge and refers to the flow of most body fluids

    example: diarrhea is the frequent flow of loose or watery stool
  26. Suffixes:


    example: myorrhexis is the rupture of muscle
  27. Prefixes:

    means away from

    example: abnormal means not normal or away from normal
  28. Prefixes:

    means toward or in the direction of

    example: addiction means drawn toward a strong dependence on a drug or substance
  29. Prefixes:

    means bad, difficult, or painful

    example: dusfuntional means an organ or body part that is not working properly
  30. Prefixes:

    means good, normal, well or easy

    example: euthyriod means a normally functioning thyriod gland
  31. Prefixes:

    means excessivse or increased

    example: hypertension is higher than normal blood pressure
  32. Prefixes:

    means deficient or decreased

    example: hypotension is the lower than normal blood pressure
  33. Prefixes:

    means between or among

    example: interstitial means between, but not within, the parts of a tissue
  34. Prefixes:

    means within or inside

    example: intramuscular means within the muscle
  35. Prefixes:

    means under, less, or below

    example: subcostal means below rib or ribs
  36. Prefixes:

    super-, supra-
    means above or excessive

    example: supracostal means above or outside the ribs
  37. Look-alike/ sound-alike

    means artery

    example: endarterial means pertaining the interior lining or lining of an artery or arteries. (end- means within, arteri means artery, and -al means pertaining to)
  38. Look-alike/sound-alike

    means fatty deposit

    example: atheroma is a fatty deposit within the wall of an artery or arteries (ather means fatty substance, and oma means tumor)
  39. Look-alike/sound a-like

    means joint

    example: arthraglia means pain in a joint or joints (arthro means joint, aglia means pain)
  40. Look-alike/sound a-like

    means surgical removal

    example: appendectomy is the surgical removal of the appendix (append means appendix and -ectomy means surgical removal)
  41. Look-alike/sound a-like

    means the surgical creation of an artificial opening to the body surface

    example: colostomy is the surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the colon and the body surface (col means colon, -ostomy means creation of an artificial opening)
  42. Look-alike/sound a-like

    means cutting or a surgical incision

    example: colotomy is a surgical incision into the colon (col means colon, -otomy means surgical incision)
  43. Unusual Plural Forms

    If the singular terms ends in the suffix -a, the plural is usually formed by changing the ending to - _ _

    Bursa, Vertebra

    Bursae, Vertebrae
  44. Unusual Plural Forms

    If the singular terms ends in the suffix -is or -ix, the plural is usually formed by changing theses ending - _ _ _ _

    Appendix, Index

    Appendices, indices
  45. Unusual Plural Forms

    If the singular terms ends in the suffix -is, the plural is usually formed by changing the ending to - _ _

    Diagnosis, metastasis

    diagnoses, metastases
  46. Unusual Plural Forms

    If the singular terms ends in the suffix -itis, the plural is usually formed by changing the -is ending to - _ _ _ _

    arthritis, meningitis

    arthritides, meningitides
  47. Unusual Plural Forms

    If the singular terms ends in the suffix -nx, the plural is usually formed by changing the -x ending to - _ _ _

    phalanx, meninx

    phalanges, meninges
  48. Unusual Plural Forms

    If the singular terms ends in the suffix -on, the plural is usually formed by changing the ending to - _

    criterion, ganglion

    criteria, ganglia
  49. Unusual Plural Forms

    If the singular terms ends in the suffix -um, the plural is usually formed by changing the ending to - _

    diverticulum, ovum

    diverticula, ova
  50. Unusual Plural Forms

    If the singular terms ends in the suffix -us, the plural is usually formed by changing the ending to - _

    alvelous, malleoulus

    alveoli, malleoli
  51. A sign is
    objective evidence of disease such as a fever. The sign can be evaluated or measured by the patient or others
  52. A symptom is
    subjective evidence of a disease, such as pain or a headache. A symptom can be evaluated or measured only by the patient.
  53. A syndrome is
    a set of the signs and symptoms that occur together as part of a specific disease process
  54. A diagnosis is
    the identification of a disease. To diagnose is the process of reaching a diagnosis
  55. A prognosis is
    a prediction of the probable course and outcome of a disorder (plural prognoses)
  56. An acute condition has a
    rapid onset, a severe course, and a relatively short duration
  57. A chronic condition is
    of long duration. although such diseases can be controlled, they are rarely cured.
  58. A remission is
    the temporary, partial, or complete disappearance of the symptoms of a disease without having achieved a cure
  59. A disease is a
    condition in which one or more body parts aren't functioning normally. Some diseases are named for their signs and symptoms. (i.e. chronic fatigue syndrome is a persistent overwhelming fatigue of unknown origin.)
  60. An eponym is
    a disease, structure, operation, or procedure named for the person who discovered or described it first. (i.e. Alzheimer's Disease is named for the German neurologist Alois Alzheimer.)
  61. An acronym is
    a word formed from the initial letter of the major parts of a compund term.
  62. A fissure is
    a groove or crack-like sore of the skin. This term also describes normal folds in the contours of the brain
  63. A fistula is
    an abnormal passage, usually between two internal organs, or leading from an organ to the surface of the body. May be due to surgery, injury, or the draining of an abscess.
  64. Illeum
    the last and longest portion of the small intestine
  65. Illium
    is part of the hip bone.
  66. An infection is
    the invasion of the body by pathogenic organisms. The infection can remain localized or can be systematic. Signs and symptoms can include malaise (feeling of general discomfort or uneasiness), chills and fever, redness, heat, swelling, or exuade (fluid, such as pus, that leaks from an infected wound) from a wound.
  67. An inflammation is
    a localized response to injury or descruction of tissue.
  68. What are the cardinal signs of an inflammation?
    • 1. erythema (redness)
    • 2. hyperthermia (heat)
    • 3. edema (swelling)
    • 4. pain

    These are caused by extra blood flow into the area as part of the healing process.
  69. What is a laceration?
    a torn or jagged wound or an accidental cut wound
  70. What is a lesion?
    a pathologic change of the tissue due to disease or injury
  71. Mucous
    specialized mucous membranes that line the body cavities
  72. Mucus
    fluid secreted by the mucous membrane
  73. What does myc/o mean?

    example: mycosis describes any abnormal condition or disease caused by a fungus
  74. What does myel/o mean?
    bone marrow or spinal cord

    example: myelopathy describes any pathological change or disease in the spinal cord.
  75. What does my/o mean?

    example: myopathy describes any patholoical change or disease of muscle tissue
  76. -ologist means

    example: dermatologist
  77. -ology
    means the study of

    example: neurology
  78. Palpation
    an examination technique in which the examiner's hands are used to feel the texture, size, consistency, and location of certain body parts
  79. Palpitation
    pounding or racing heart
  80. Prostate
    male gland that lies under the urinary bladder and surrounds teh urethra
  81. Prostrate
    means to collaspe and be lying flat or to be overcome with exhaustion
  82. pyel/o
    means renal pelvis, which is part of the kidney

    example: pyelitis is an inflammation of the renal pelvis
  83. py/o
    mean pus

    example: pyoderma is any acute, inflammatory, pus-forming bacterial skin infection such as impetigo
  84. pyr/o
    means fever or fire

    example: pryosis, also know as heartburn, is discomfort due to the regurgitation of stomach acid upward into the esophagus
  85. angio-
    blood vessel
  86. cardi-
  87. cerebr
  88. chole-
  89. chondri-
  90. cost-
  91. crani-
  92. cyst-
  93. encephal-
  94. enter-
  95. ex, exo-
    out/ away from
  96. gastr-
  97. hem-
  98. hepato-
  99. homeo-, homo-
  100. hydra hydro, hydr
  101. ipsi-
    same side
  102. lip, lipo-
  103. lith-
  104. mega-, megalo-
  105. necro-
  106. neo-
  107. nephr-
  108. olig-, oligo-
  109. oophor-
  110. orchi-
  111. peri-
  112. pleur-
  113. phren-
  114. pneum-
  115. pseudo-
  116. retro-
  117. thrombo-
  118. trans-
  119. vaso-
  120. veno-
  121. viscer-
  122. adeno-
  123. adipo-
  124. anter-
  125. anti-
  126. bi-
  127. brachio-
  128. co-
  129. colo-
  130. contra-
  131. dactyl-
    digit (fingers and toes)
  132. decub-
  133. dors-
  134. ecto-
  135. encephalo-
  136. epi-
  137. hemi-
  138. ileo-
  139. infero-
  140. mal-
  141. meningo
  142. meno-
  143. meta-
  144. myo-
  145. neuro-
  146. oro-
  147. osteo-
  148. pan-
  149. para-
  150. phlebo-
  151. poly-
  152. post-
  153. pre-
  154. psycho-
  155. pyo-
  156. sclero-
  157. -ectasis
  158. -emia
    blood condition
  159. -genic
    produced by or in
  160. -gylcemia
    glucose blood condition
  161. -oid
    resemblimg, derived from
  162. -oma
  163. -osis
    abnormal condition or disease
  164. -phobia
  165. -ptosis
    drop, sag, prolapse
  166. -uria
Card Set
Intro to Sonography
Medical Terminology: Root word, prefixes, and suffixes