- Caloric: proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.
- Noncaloric: vitamins, minerals, and water.
Primary functions of protein, carbohydrates and fats
- Protein: Used for fuel and essenial growth. Make our cells (nails, hair, bones, teeth)
- Carbohydrates: Cells in out brain and blood used only carbs as fuel. Glucose for blood sugar and immediate/ready energy
- Fats: Maintains healthy skin and hair. Need fat to use Vitamins A, D, E, K. Monounsaturated improves blood cholesterols. Polyunsaturated keep heart beat steady and clots blood.
Number of calories per gram in protein, carbohydrates and fats
- Protein: 4 calories/gram
- Carbohydrates: 4 calories/gram
- Fat: 9 calories/gram
Number of calories in one pound of fat
3500 calories/lb. fat
Complete and incomplete protein
Characteristics and leading sources of saturated fats
- Solid at room temperature
- Fat that is a contributor to cancers
- Animal sources: meat, cheese, milk, eggs
Sources of fats: monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated
- Monounsaturated: Avocados, most nuts, oils (olive, canola, peanut, safflower)
- Polyunsaturated: Fish (salmon, tuna, trout, sardines), dark leafy greens, walnuts, and flax seeds
- Saturated: Animal sources (meat, cheese, milk, eggs)
What type of fats have the most health benefits?
- Polyunsaturated fat
Glucose and glycogen
- Glucose: Your blood sugar. Immediate/ready energy.
- Glycogen: Stored in muscles and liver
- When needed. glycogen turns to glucose for energy to burn. Stored energy.
Function of fiber in the diet
- Makes stool softer and easier to pass
- Prevent constipation
- Slows absorption of glucose with lowers risk of diabetes
- Attaches to cholesterol and flushes it out to lower risk of heart disease
Good sources of dietary fiber
Wheat products, fruits, and vegetables
A measure of how the ingestion of a particular food affects blood glucose levels
Function of vitamins and minerals in the body
- Convert food energy into body energy
- Helps with heart beat, blood clotting
Which vitamins are water soluble? Which are fat soluble?
- Water-soluble: C & B complex
- Fat-soluble: A, D, E, K
A deficiency in the oxygen-carrying material in the red blood cells
Mineral deficiency which can lead to osteoporosis
Primary source of dietary calcium
The benefit of antioxidants
Prevent body from producing harmful free radicals
Recommended number of daily servings from each food group for a 2,000 calorie diet, according to the DASH food plan
- Protein: 4 oz. (size of deck of cards)
- Fat: 67 grams (5 tbsp)
The leading source of calories in the American diet
Saturated fat and sugars
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
Promote health and reducce the risk of chronic disease
Ways to reduce fat in your diet
- Eat chicken, turkey and fish, instead of red meat
- Low fat cheese
- Cut down on pastries, fried foods, mayonnaise, and salad dressing
- Recommend that we don't eat more than 67 grams of fat per day. (40-50 grams per day to lose weight)
How much is considered moderate alcohol for men? For women?
- Men: no more than 2 drinks
- Women: no more than 1 drink
Resting Metabolic Rate
- Energy required just to maintain body functions
- Dictated by genes and behavior
Factors that affect metabolic rate
- Yo-yo dieting: Losing weight and gaining it back over and over again
- Restrictive dieting: depriving of certain foods. Leads to binge eating.
- Psychological, Social, and Cultural Factors: stress, obesity, lack of knowledge, families.
Recommended number of meals/snacks per day for weight management
- Eat small frequent meals on a dependable schedule
- Keeps metabolism up
How much weight should be lost each week to improve chances of maintaining the weight loss?
- Binge-eating followed by purging
- Harder to detect
- Purging 2x a day 2x a week
- Menstrual problems
- Liver and kidney damage
- Do not eat enough food to maintain a reasonable body
- Fear of getting fat
- Not eating, exercising excessively
- Affects 1.3 million Americans (95% women)
- 12-18 years old
- Affects heart rate, gastrointestinal system, hormones
Stress, stressor and stress response
- Stressor: any physical or psychological event or condition that triggers stress. (Cause of stress)
- Stress response: emoitional and physical responses
General Adaptation Syndrome
- Body releases hormones to prepare body to fight through this (cortisol and epinephrine)
- When a person perceives an event as stressful, the pituitary gland produces ACTH (goes into bloodstream to adrenal glands producing epinephrine, aka adrenaline)
Effective and ineffective responses to stress
- Positive: talking, laughing, meditation, praying
- Negative: holding it in, angry, bitter, self-talk (easier to put yourself)
Eustress and distress
- Eustress: Positive stress. Exercise, weddings, school, having a baby, performing on stage. Motivates us to make changes.
- Distress: Unpleasant stress. Work, relationships, parents, finals, traffic, financial problems. Can lead to sickness and even death.
How stress may increase the risk of heart disease
High blood pressure most serious long-term effect of stress
Stress management techniques
- Social support
- Eating habits
- Break long-term goals into short-term goals
- Consider doing you least favorite task first
- Give yourself a break
- Accept the fact that we all make mistakes
- Stop thinking about what you're going to do, "Just Do It"
- Cognitive techniques (modify expectations, laugh)
- Relaxation techniques (hypnosis, massage, slow deep breathing)
Nutrition for coping with stress
How exercise relates to stress management
Light exercise relieves stress