Living Environment Reproduction & Development

  1. Why is reproduction necessary?
    All individuals will die, but it allows the species to continue past a single generation.
  2. Why are offspring of sexual reproducing organisms similar to their parents?
    The offspring receives genetic material from each of its parents.
  3. Why are offspring of asexual reproducing organisms identical to its parent?
    The offspring has only one parent and receives the exact same genetic material.
  4. What are gametes?
    Sex cells, egg or sperm cells.
  5. What is fertilization?
    The joining of gametes, giving the egg a full set of chromosomes.
  6. What is cloning?
    A way of making genetically identical copies of an organism.
  7. What is the purpose of mitosis in a one-celled organism?
    To reproduce
  8. What type of reproduction is mitosis associated with?
  9. What type of reproduction is meiosis associated with?
  10. What is the purpose for mitosis in multi-cellular organisms?
    For growth and repair
  11. What is the purpose for meiosis in multi-cellular organisms?
    To make cells for reproduction
  12. How do the resulting cells of mitosis compare to the originally genetically?
    There are identical with a full set of chromosomes
  13. How do the resulting cells of meiosis compare to the originally genetically?
    Similar with half of the chromosomes as before
  14. Is there an exchange of genetic material between chromosomes in mitosis?
  15. Is there an exchange of genetic material between chromosomes in meiosis?
    Yes, called crossover
  16. How many cells result in mitosis?
  17. How many cells result in meiosis?
  18. What is the difference between meiosis in a male and a female?
    The male produces four functioning sperm, and a female makes one functioning egg and three cells that do not work.
  19. What is crossing-over?
    Chromosomes exchanging parts of their genetic information.
  20. What is a zygote?
    The result of the unification of gametes. It is the cell with a full set of chromosomes that will make a baby.
  21. Why is fertilization called recombination sometimes?
    The cells of the parents recombine to make a full cell.
  22. What happens to the identical cells of a baby?
    They differentiate into different organs and tissues.
  23. Why do some cells become skin cells and others muscle cells?
    Because some genes are not expressed in all cells. The genetic code that is not needed is covered up, like eye color would in a skin cell.
  24. What influence does the environment have on a cell?
    There may be mutations, like from skin cancer, and it can affect the gene expression. In a plant without light, it would be a white plant because the gene for chlorophyll would not work.
  25. What are the four main jobs of the female reproductive system?
    Produce gametes, support internal fertilization and development, exchange materials with the baby through the placenta, and provide milk for the offspring.
  26. What are the two main jobs of the male reproductive system?
    Produce gametes and make fluid to deliver the gametes to the female reproductive system.
  27. What do estrogen and progesterone do?
    Influence the preparation of the uterus lining.
  28. What is the job of the fluid filled sac?
    To protect and cushion the embryo/fetus
  29. What occurs in the first few months of pregnancy?
    Essential organs begin to form
  30. What things can be dangerous to a developing fetus, especially at an early age?
    A mother drinking, smoking, using drugs, getting sick, or having a poor diet.
  31. What have reproductive technologies allowed doctors to do?
    Deal with infertility and other reproductive problems.
  32. What can an ultrasound do?
    Show the organs and structures including the fetus to determine where things are going wrong.
Card Set
Living Environment Reproduction & Development
Review of all the important stuff you need to know about reproduction and development for the Regents Exam