s used to explain the stability in a person’s
behavior over time and across situations (consistency in behavior) and the
behavioral differences among people reacting to the same situation
(distinctiveness). Thus, refers to an individual’s unique set of consistent
refer to adjectives we used to describe a person's
consistent behavior in a variety of situation, such as work, parties, home,
etc., such as outgoing, shy, honest, aggressive, passive, kind, mean, etc
positive emotionality) - describes a person as sociable, upbeat,
friendly, assertive, and gregarious
negative emotionality) - a person who is anxious, hostile, self-conscious, insecure, and
vivid fantasy, imaginativeness, artistic sensitivity, and unconventional
Openness to experience - curiosity
- A person who is agreeable is sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, modest, and straightforward
diligent, disciplined, well organized, punctual,
and dependable…some models refer to this trait as constraint ... tend to be
successful in their career.
Sigmund Freud believed that the
- foundation of
- personality is laid by the age of 5.
His theory asserts that
- asserts that children deal with developing sexual
- urges (sexual used as a general term meaning physical pleasure) during
- different stages of development, thus shape personality
- Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital
- is failure to move forward from one stage to
- another as expected
Structure of personality
According to Freud, the Ego
- what keeps individuals to act orderly as it is the mediator between the ID that
- want gratification right away and the Superego that is all about morality. What the ego does is to ensure that Id finds
- gratification at the proper time and environment and gives common sense to the
- Superego's strict moral standards (right and wrong).
. Freud theorized that people have 3 levels of
- preconscious, and unconscious
Together with the conflicts between the Id,
ego, superego and unconscious motives lead to conflict which eventually lead
In the psychoanalytic perspectives we also had
Carl Jung's analytical theory that
- ndividuals form their personality based on
- their personal unconscious experiences and collective unconscious experiences.;
- their personal experiences from birth and world, cultural histories and norms
- as human beings
Alfred Adler's Individual psychology which describes an
individual's personality based
- drive to adapt, improve oneself, and master life’s
- challenges. Adler asserted that everyone
- feels some inferiority and works to overcome it, a process he called
When the feelings
are excessive, an inferiority complex can result.
- . People can
- also conceal, even from themselves, their feelings of inferiority, resulting in
- overcompensation…seeking status and power, and flaunting their success
- to cover up underlying inferiority.
- according to Skinner, is based in response
- tendencies acquired through learning over the course of the lifespan; learned
- through conditioning
- developed social
- learning theory, His theory of observational learning holds that behavior is
- shaped by exposure to models, or a person whose behavior they observe.
. Walter Mischel is
also an advocate of social learning theory
- , with a focus on the
- extent to which situational factors govern behavior.
viewed personality in terms of the
- a collection of beliefs about one’s own nature, unique qualities, and typical
- behavior…a person’s mental picture of themselves.
proposed that human motives are organized into a hierarchy of needs
- a systematic
- arrangement of needs, according to priority, in which basic needs must be met
- before less basic needs are produced.
Eysenck believes that personality can be characterized along just three
dimensions and that these are genetically determined in individuals
Psychoticis Extraversion :Neuroticism
was first published
in 1952 by the American Psychiatric Association - the DSM. This classification scheme is now in its 4th
revision, which uses a multiaxial system for classifying mental disorders.
A taxonomy of mental disorders
the study of the
distribution of mental or physical disorders in the population
- I – Clinical Syndromes
- II – Personality Disorders or Mental Retardation
- III – General Medical Conditions
- IV – Psychosocial and Environmental Problems
- V – Global Assessment of Functioning (1-100)
- re a class of disorders marked by emotional
- disturbances of varied kinds that may spill over to physical, perceptual,
- social, and thought processes.
- a pessimistic explanatory style have been proposed
- by Martin Seligman as predisposing individuals to depression. Hopelessness
- theory, the most recent descendant of the learned helplessness model of
- depression, proposes a sense of hopelessness as the “final pathway” leading to
- physical ailments that cannot be explained by
- organic conditions. They are not
- psychosomatic diseases, which are real physical ailments caused in part by
- psychological factors
rized by a significant loss of physical function(with no apparent organic basis), usually in a single organ system…loss ofvision, partial paralysis, mutism, etc
are a class of disorders in which people lose
contact with portions of their consciousness or memory, resulting in
disruptions in their sense of identity.
is a sudden loss of memory for important personal
information that is too extensive to be due to normal forgetting. Memory loss
may be for a single traumatic event or for an extended time period around the
fugue is when
people lose their memory for their entire lives along with their sense of
personal identity…forget their name, family, where they live, etc., but still
know how to do math and drive a car.
There are 4 subtypes of schizophrenia
are a class of disorders marked by extreme,
inflexible personality traits that cause subjective distress or impaired social
and occupational functioning.
Avoidant – excessively sensitive to potential
rejection, humiliation or shame
excessively lacking in self-reliance and
self-esteem, Obsessive-compulsive – preoccupied with organization, rules,
schedules, lists, and trivial details.
Schizoid – defective in capacity for forming social
relationships, Schizotypal – social deficits and oddities in thinking,
perception, and communication, Paranoid – pervasive and unwarranted
suspiciousness and mistrust.
Histrionic – overly dramatic, tending to exaggerate
expressions of emotion
grandiosely self-important, lacking interpersonal
empathy, Borderline – unstable in self-image, mood, and interpersonal
relationships, Antisocial – chronically violating the rights of others,
non-accepting of social norms, inability to form attachments.
is not a diagnosis, it is a legal concept. Insanity is a legal status indicating that a
person cannot be held responsible for his or her actions because of mental
holds that insanity exists when a mental disorder
makes a person unable to distinguish right from wrong.
The M’naghten rule
occurs when people are hospitalized in psychiatric
facilities against their will. Rules vary from state to state, but generally,
people are subject to involuntary commitment when they are a danger to
themselves or others or when they are in need of treatment (as in cases of
- Insight therapy involves pursuing increased
insight regarding the nature of the client’s difficulty and sorting through
possible solutions. - “talk therapy”
therapy is based on the principles of learning, with behavior therapists
working to alter maladaptive habits and change overt behaviors - Changing overt behavior
Biomedical therapies involve interventions to alter
a person’s biological functioning - Biological
functioning interventions -
an insight therapy that emphasizes the recovery of
unconscious conflicts, motives, and defenses through a variety of techniques.
occurs when the clients unconsciously start
relating to their therapist in ways that mimic critical relationships in their
involve the application of learning principles to
direct efforts to change clients’ maladaptive behaviors.
based on the work of
B.F. Skinner, assuming that behavior is a product of learning,
Behavior therapies are based
developed a therapy called systematic desensitization to reduce phobic clients’ anxiety
responses through counterconditioning
Joseph Wolpe (1958
is the most controversial of the behavior
therapies, where an aversive stimulus is paired with a stimulus that elicits an
is a behavior therapy, designed to improve
interpersonal skills, that emphasizes modeling, behavioral rehearsal, and
is an insight therapy that emphasizes recognizing
and changing negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs.
The goal of these therapies is to change the way
clients think, detecting and recognizing negative thoughts, reality testing,
and devising behavioral “homework assignments” that focus on changing overt
- Aaron Beck devised cognitive oriented
are physiological interventions intended to reduce
symptoms associated with psychological disorders. They assume that these disorders are caused,
at least in part, by biological malfunctions.
Psychopharmacotherapy is the treatment of mental disorders with medication—drug therapy.
Drugs used to treat
psychological disorders fall into three major categories, antianxiety,
antipsychotic, and antidepressant
rugs relieve tension, apprehension, and
which have a different mechanism of action, such as
clozapine, have fewer motor side effects but are not risk free.
is a chemical used to control mood swings in
patients with bipolar mood disorders; it is very successful at preventing future
episodes of mania and depression, but it can be toxic and requires careful
is a biomedical treatment in which electric shock
is used to produce a cortical seizure accompanied by convulsions
- therapy (ECT
While there is evidence to suggest that it is helpful in the treatment
of major depressive disorder, some researchers claim that it is in fact no
better than a placebo.
- - ECT is
- also controversial
doubts about their applicability to other cultures and even ethnic groups in
- The highly-culture
- bound origins of Western therapies
refers to the movement away from inpatient
treatment in mental hospitals to more community based treatment.
of psychology concerned with the way individuals' thoughts, feelings and
behaviors are influenced by others.
of social relationships; parent child, co-workers-coworker, friends, etc
- of us live in a social matrix
of these norms and expected roles, we tend to conform or change our behavior because of real or perceived group
- Conformity (occurs when people yield to real or imagined social
Obedience (form of compliance that occurs when
people follow direct commands, usually from someone in a position of
- This another way that the our social
- environment changes the way we behave.
. as in the Nazi example A real experiment that was done at a
basement at Stanford University by Phillip Zimbardo on conformity and obedience
on why prisons tend to be violent and aggressive.
The Power of Situation is very powerful-
best way to prevent conformity is
- a sense of and respect for personal uniqueness.
judge a book by its cover" is a very popular saying because that's what
people do. Because of the pressure to
conform to norms, we expect people to be a certain way and appearances is one
way we expect and judge people
Effects of physical appearance
that people have certain characteristics because of their memberships in a
the tendency to put out less energy and effort into a group task and ignore
individual responsibility: In
Unanimity - also
tends to make people do things or behave in certain ways that otherwise they
wouldn't do if they were identified
when members of a cohesive group emphasize concurrence at the expense of
critical thinking in arriving at a decision.