1. s used to explain the stability in a person’s
    behavior over time and across situations (consistency in behavior) and the
    behavioral differences among people reacting to the same situation
    (distinctiveness). Thus, refers to an individual’s unique set of consistent
    behavioral traits.
    • Concept of
    • personality
  2. refer to adjectives we used to describe a person's
    consistent behavior in a variety of situation, such as work, parties, home,
    etc., such as outgoing, shy, honest, aggressive, passive, kind, mean, etc
  3. positive emotionality) - describes a person as sociable, upbeat,
    friendly, assertive, and gregarious
    . Extraversion
  4. negative emotionality) - a person who is anxious, hostile, self-conscious, insecure, and
  5. , flexibility,
    vivid fantasy, imaginativeness, artistic sensitivity, and unconventional
    Openness to experience - curiosity
  6. - A person who is agreeable is sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, modest, and straightforward
  7. diligent, disciplined, well organized, punctual,
    and dependable…some models refer to this trait as constraint ... tend to be
    successful in their career.
    . Conscientiousness
  8. Sigmund Freud believed that the
    • foundation of
    • personality is laid by the age of 5.
  9. His theory asserts that
    • asserts that children deal with developing sexual
    • urges (sexual used as a general term meaning physical pleasure) during
    • different stages of development, thus shape personality
  10. Psychosexual
    stages :
    • Oral,
    • Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital
  11. Fixation
    • is failure to move forward from one stage to
    • another as expected
  12. the
    Structure of personality
    • Id
    • - Pleasure principle

    • Ego
    • - Reality principle

    • Superego
    • - Morality
  13. According to Freud, the Ego
    • is
    • what keeps individuals to act orderly as it is the mediator between the ID that
    • want gratification right away and the Superego that is all about morality. What the ego does is to ensure that Id finds
    • gratification at the proper time and environment and gives common sense to the
    • Superego's strict moral standards (right and wrong).
  14. . Freud theorized that people have 3 levels of
    • conscious,
    • preconscious, and unconscious
  15. Together with the conflicts between the Id,
    ego, superego and unconscious motives lead to conflict which eventually lead
    o stress.
  16. In the psychoanalytic perspectives we also had
    Carl Jung's analytical theory that
    • ndividuals form their personality based on
    • their personal unconscious experiences and collective unconscious experiences.;
    • their personal experiences from birth and world, cultural histories and norms
    • as human beings
  17. Alfred Adler's Individual psychology which describes an
    individual's personality based
    • drive to adapt, improve oneself, and master life’s
    • challenges. Adler asserted that everyone
    • feels some inferiority and works to overcome it, a process he called
    • compensation.
  18. When the feelings
    are excessive, an inferiority complex can result.
    • . People can
    • also conceal, even from themselves, their feelings of inferiority, resulting in
    • overcompensation…seeking status and power, and flaunting their success
    • to cover up underlying inferiority.
  19. 1. Personality
    • according to Skinner, is based in response
    • tendencies acquired through learning over the course of the lifespan; learned
    • through conditioning
  20. Bandura
    • developed social
    • learning theory, His theory of observational learning holds that behavior is
    • shaped by exposure to models, or a person whose behavior they observe.
  21. . Walter Mischel is
    also an advocate of social learning theory
    • , with a focus on the
    • extent to which situational factors govern behavior.
  22. Carl Rogers
    viewed personality in terms of the
    • self-concept,
    • a collection of beliefs about one’s own nature, unique qualities, and typical
    • behavior…a person’s mental picture of themselves.
  23. Abraham Maslow
    proposed that human motives are organized into a hierarchy of needs
    • a systematic
    • arrangement of needs, according to priority, in which basic needs must be met
    • before less basic needs are produced.
  24. . Hans
    Eysenck believes that personality can be characterized along just three
    dimensions and that these are genetically determined in individuals
    Psychoticis Extraversion :Neuroticism
  25. was first published
    in 1952 by the American Psychiatric Association - the DSM. This classification scheme is now in its 4th
    revision, which uses a multiaxial system for classifying mental disorders.
    A taxonomy of mental disorders
  26. the study of the
    distribution of mental or physical disorders in the population
  27. Five Axis
    • Axis
    • I – Clinical Syndromes

    • Anxiety
    • Disorders

    • Somatoform
    • Disorders

    • Dissociative
    • Disorders

    • Mood
    • Disorders

    • Schizophrenic
    • Disorders

    • Axis
    • II – Personality Disorders or Mental Retardation

    • Axis
    • III – General Medical Conditions

    • Axis
    • IV – Psychosocial and Environmental Problems

    • Axis
    • V – Global Assessment of Functioning (1-100)
  28. Mood disorders
    • re a class of disorders marked by emotional
    • disturbances of varied kinds that may spill over to physical, perceptual,
    • social, and thought processes.
  29. Learned helplessness
    • a pessimistic explanatory style have been proposed
    • by Martin Seligman as predisposing individuals to depression. Hopelessness
    • theory, the most recent descendant of the learned helplessness model of
    • depression, proposes a sense of hopelessness as the “final pathway” leading to
  30. Somatoform disorder
    • physical ailments that cannot be explained by
    • organic conditions. They are not
    • psychosomatic diseases, which are real physical ailments caused in part by
    • psychological factors
  31. rized by a significant loss of physical function(with no apparent organic basis), usually in a single organ system…loss ofvision, partial paralysis, mutism, etc
    Conversion disorder
  32. are a class of disorders in which people lose
    contact with portions of their consciousness or memory, resulting in
    disruptions in their sense of identity.
    • Dissociative
    • disorders
  33. is a sudden loss of memory for important personal
    information that is too extensive to be due to normal forgetting. Memory loss
    may be for a single traumatic event or for an extended time period around the
    Dissociative amnesia
  34. fugue is when
    people lose their memory for their entire lives along with their sense of
    personal identity…forget their name, family, where they live, etc., but still
    know how to do math and drive a car.
    Dissociative fugue
  35. There are 4 subtypes of schizophrenia
    • Paranoid
    • schizophrenia
    • Disorganized
    • schizophrenia
    • Undifferentiated
    • schizophrenia
    • Catatonic
    • schizophrenia
  36. are a class of disorders marked by extreme,
    inflexible personality traits that cause subjective distress or impaired social
    and occupational functioning.
    Personality disorders
  37. Avoidant – excessively sensitive to potential
    rejection, humiliation or shame
    • Anxious-fearful
    • cluster
  38. excessively lacking in self-reliance and
    self-esteem, Obsessive-compulsive – preoccupied with organization, rules,
    schedules, lists, and trivial details.
  39. Schizoid – defective in capacity for forming social
    relationships, Schizotypal – social deficits and oddities in thinking,
    perception, and communication, Paranoid – pervasive and unwarranted
    suspiciousness and mistrust.
    Odd-eccentric cluster
  40. Histrionic – overly dramatic, tending to exaggerate
    expressions of emotion
    • Dramatic-impulsive
    • cluster
  41. grandiosely self-important, lacking interpersonal
    empathy, Borderline – unstable in self-image, mood, and interpersonal
    relationships, Antisocial – chronically violating the rights of others,
    non-accepting of social norms, inability to form attachments.

  42. ADHD•
    Asperger’s •
    Developmental Disorders
  43. is not a diagnosis, it is a legal concept. Insanity is a legal status indicating that a
    person cannot be held responsible for his or her actions because of mental
  44. holds that insanity exists when a mental disorder
    makes a person unable to distinguish right from wrong.
    The M’naghten rule
  45. occurs when people are hospitalized in psychiatric
    facilities against their will. Rules vary from state to state, but generally,
    people are subject to involuntary commitment when they are a danger to
    themselves or others or when they are in need of treatment (as in cases of
    severe disorientation).
    • Involuntary
    • commitment
  46. - Insight therapy involves pursuing increased
    insight regarding the nature of the client’s difficulty and sorting through
    possible solutions. - “talk therapy”
    Insight therapies
  47. Behavior
    therapy is based on the principles of learning, with behavior therapists
    working to alter maladaptive habits and change overt behaviors - Changing overt behavior
    Behavior therapies
  48. Biomedical therapies involve interventions to alter
    a person’s biological functioning - Biological
    functioning interventions -
    Biomedical therapies
  49. an insight therapy that emphasizes the recovery of
    unconscious conflicts, motives, and defenses through a variety of techniques.
  50. occurs when the clients unconsciously start
    relating to their therapist in ways that mimic critical relationships in their
  51. involve the application of learning principles to
    direct efforts to change clients’ maladaptive behaviors.
    Behavior therapies
  52. based on the work of
    B.F. Skinner, assuming that behavior is a product of learning,
    Behavior therapies are based
  53. developed a therapy called systematic desensitization to reduce phobic clients’ anxiety
    responses through counterconditioning
    Joseph Wolpe (1958
  54. is the most controversial of the behavior
    therapies, where an aversive stimulus is paired with a stimulus that elicits an
    undesirable response
  55. is a behavior therapy, designed to improve
    interpersonal skills, that emphasizes modeling, behavioral rehearsal, and
    • Social skills
    • training
  56. is an insight therapy that emphasizes recognizing
    and changing negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs.
    Cognitive-behavioral therapy
  57. The goal of these therapies is to change the way
    clients think, detecting and recognizing negative thoughts, reality testing,
    and devising behavioral “homework assignments” that focus on changing overt
    • Aaron Beck devised cognitive oriented
    • therapies.
  58. are physiological interventions intended to reduce
    symptoms associated with psychological disorders. They assume that these disorders are caused,
    at least in part, by biological malfunctions.
    Biomedical therapies
  59. Psychopharmacotherapy is the treatment of mental disorders with medication—drug therapy.

    Drugs used to treat
    psychological disorders fall into three major categories, antianxiety,
    antipsychotic, and antidepressant
  60. rugs relieve tension, apprehension, and
    Antianxiety drugs
  61. which have a different mechanism of action, such as
    clozapine, have fewer motor side effects but are not risk free.
    Newer drugs
  62. is a chemical used to control mood swings in
    patients with bipolar mood disorders; it is very successful at preventing future
    episodes of mania and depression, but it can be toxic and requires careful
  63. is a biomedical treatment in which electric shock
    is used to produce a cortical seizure accompanied by convulsions
    • Electroconvulsive
    • therapy (ECT
  64. also controversial.
    While there is evidence to suggest that it is helpful in the treatment
    of major depressive disorder, some researchers claim that it is in fact no
    better than a placebo.
    • - ECT is
    • also controversial
  65. have raised
    doubts about their applicability to other cultures and even ethnic groups in
    Western society.
    • The highly-culture
    • bound origins of Western therapies
  66. refers to the movement away from inpatient
    treatment in mental hospitals to more community based treatment.
  67. branch
    of psychology concerned with the way individuals' thoughts, feelings and
    behaviors are influenced by others.
    Social psychology
  68. layers
    of social relationships; parent child, co-workers-coworker, friends, etc
    • All
    • of us live in a social matrix
  69. Because
    of these norms and expected roles, we tend to conform or change our behavior because of real or perceived group
    • Conformity (occurs when people yield to real or imagined social
    • pressure):
  70. Obedience (form of compliance that occurs when
    people follow direct commands, usually from someone in a position of
    • This another way that the our social
    • environment changes the way we behave.
    • It
  71. . as in the Nazi example A real experiment that was done at a
    basement at Stanford University by Phillip Zimbardo on conformity and obedience
    on why prisons tend to be violent and aggressive.
    The Power of Situation is very powerful-
  72. The
    best way to prevent conformity is
    • maintain
    • a sense of and respect for personal uniqueness.
  73. Don't
    judge a book by its cover" is a very popular saying because that's what
    people do. Because of the pressure to
    conform to norms, we expect people to be a certain way and appearances is one
    way we expect and judge people
    Effects of physical appearance
  74. beliefs
    that people have certain characteristics because of their memberships in a
    particular group:
  75. s
    the tendency to put out less energy and effort into a group task and ignore
    individual responsibility: In
    Social loafing
  76. efforts.

    Unanimity - also
    tends to make people do things or behave in certain ways that otherwise they
    wouldn't do if they were identified
    Unanimity -
  77. occurs
    when members of a cohesive group emphasize concurrence at the expense of
    critical thinking in arriving at a decision.
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