Clin Med V

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  1. What are clinical signs or lower urinary tract disease?
    pollakiuria, dysuria, stranguria, periuria, incontinence, hematuria
  2. What should be included in the physical exam when evaluating lower urinary tract disease?
    size shape, symmetry, and consistency of kidneys, rectal exam including prostate and urethra
  3. What are examples of anatomic urethral obstruction?
    urolithiasis, neoplasia, cysts, mucous plugs
  4. Urolithiasis definition
    crystal does mean stone, does not mean mucous plug
  5. What are the most common cystic calculi in dogs?
    struvite, calcium oxalate
  6. What are examples of cystic calculi in dogs?
    struvite, calcium oxalate, urate, cystine, calcium phosphate, silica
  7. What does "I can't C U" mean?
    can't see cystine and urates on RADs
  8. What are sequellae of cystic calculi?
    urinary tract infection, obstruction, polyp formation
  9. What is the most common cause of UTI?
    E. coli
  10. Are dogs or cats more common to get UTIs?
  11. Are males or females more common to get UTI?
  12. What constitutes polyuria?
    > 50 ml/kg/day
  13. What constitutes polydipsia?
    > 100 ml/kg/day
  14. What are clinical signs of upper urinary tract disease?
    polyuria, polydipsia, azotemia, proteinuria, ADR, vomiting, inappetance, oliguria, anuria
  15. What is inflammation of the glomerulus +/- tubules, proteinuria is the hallmark, common cause of CKD?
  16. Must rule out all diseases on rule out list prior to what 2 tests (testing urine function)?
    ADH response, modified water deprivation test
  17. What would cause elevations in BUN?
    high protein intake/ GI bleeding, renal disease, dehydration, exercise
  18. What would cause decreases in BUN?
    poor diet, malabsorption, liver disease, diuresis
  19. What would cause elevation of creatinine?
    renal disease, muscle degeneration/damage, drugs, dehydration, greyhounds, puppies
  20. What are common clinical signs of uremia?
    gastroenteritis, acidosis, pneumonitis, osteodystrophy, encephalopathy, oral ulcerations
  21. How does the illness model view behavior problems?
    as representing some type of abnormal maladaptive response, generally a neurotransmitter imbalance.
  22. How does the ethological model view behavior problems?
    maintains that most problem behaviors are normal but can be a major problem for the household or pet owner
  23. What are examples of some behavior problems that clearly represent abnormalities?
    idiopathic aggression, flank sucking, acral lick dermatitis
  24. Who should attend behavior consultation?
    human family members, people who interact with pet on regular basis, and pet.
  25. Describe the opening stage of the interview?
    introduction, presenting complaint discussed, signalment, medical and vxn history, pet and family daily routine
  26. Describe the exploration stage of the interview?
    determin the nature of the problem
  27. Describe the closing stage of the interview?
    cover the diagnosis, treatment recommendations, and prognosis
  28. What process is useful in elimination of innate fears or anxieties by repeated presentation of a stimulus without aversive consquences.
  29. What is it called when we may wish to establish a new appetitive emotional or "internal feeling" response by counter-conditioning a rewarding stimulus such as food, to a physical stimulus, such as sight of children?
    classical conditioning
  30. What is it called when one can establish new responses by reinforcing desireable behaviors. Clicker training is a form of this, where bridging stimulus is used to deliver the reward immediately after the desired response?
    operant conditioning
  31. What technique is useful in adult dogs in treating aversive emotional reactions associated with innate and acquired anxieties and fears. Commonly used in treating seperation anxiety.
    systematic desensitization
  32. What involves presentation of a gradient of increasing intensity of the stimulus. The stimulus eventually loses its ability to produce an adverse emotional reaction.
    systematic desensitization
  33. What is used to supplement systematic desensitization in replacing an aversive emotional response (fear or anxiety) with a positive (or appetitive) emotional response that is incompatible with the aversive state?
  34. What is defined as the application of an aversive stimulus or removal of a rewarding (reinforcing) stimulus (stimuli)?
  35. What type of punishment includes hitting, grabbing by scruff of neck or yelling, it is sometimes effective in punishing specific acts of misbehavior when the animal is caught in the act?
    interactive punishment
  36. What involves temporarily abandoning or socially isolating the animal. A bridging stimulus, such as a duck call, can be used to precede the social withdrawl. the bridging stimulus is sounded immediately after the misbehavior.
    social punishment
  37. What are treatment guidelines for inappropriate urination in cats?
    household hygiene, perform a litter and litter box preference test, eliminate aversive aspects, increase appeal and accessibility of litter box or outdoor area, clean soiled areas, confinement
  38. What are treatment guidelines for urine marking (spraying) in cats?
    castrate males, behavioral management, make previously marked areas aversive, reduce predisposing factors, axiolytic drugs.
  39. What type of aggession in cats is typically displayed to new cats introduced into the home, as the resident cat tries to drive away the intruder. the new cat may become aggressive in return?
    territorial aggression
  40. How does territorial aggression differ from fear-related aggression?
    the cat does not avoid encounters and uses aggression when that coping mechanism fails.
  41. What type of aggression may the cat show typical signs of defensive-aggression, including the halloween cat posture, or a crouched position with flattened ears and dilated eyes?
    fear-related aggression
  42. What refers to a cat that has, and is in aggressive state, from having been in a fight with another cat or having seen another cat in an antagonistic context. The aggression is then directed to a person that touches or closely approaches it?
    redirected aggression
  43. What is the most common behavior problem of dogs, comprising of about 70% of canine cases presented to behavior clinics?
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Clin Med V
Clin Med V
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