Chapter 1

  1. Hindsight Bias
    • I knew it all along phenomenon
    • after learning the outsome of an event, many people believe they could have predicted that very outcome
  2. the scientific attitude
    • curiosity
    • skepticism
    • humility
  3. critial thinking
    examine assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions
  4. theory
    • an explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behavior or events
    • low self esteem contributes to depression
  5. hypothesis
    testable prediction often promoted by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject or revise the theory
  6. research observations
    require us to administer test of some sort
  7. Case Study
    a technique in which one person is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral principles
  8. survey
    technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people usually done by questioning a represenative, random sample of people
  9. random sampling
    if each emmeber of a population has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample, they it is random sampling
  10. correlation
    when one trait or behavior axxompanies another, we say the two correlate
  11. Exploring Cause and Effect
    • many factors influence our behavior
    • Experiments manipulate factors that intrest us, while other factors are kept under control
  12. double blind procedure
    in evaluating drug therapies, patients and experimenters assistants shoudl remain unaware of which patients had the real treatment and which patients had the placebo treatment
  13. random assignment
    assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by random assignment minimizes pre-existing differences between the two groups
  14. independent variable
    • a factor manipulated by the experimenter
    • effect of independent variable is thefocus of the study
    • for example, when examing the effects of breast feeding upon intellegence, breast feeding is the independent variable
  15. dependent variable
    • factor that change in response to an independent variable
    • it is usually a behavior or mental process
    • in our study of breast feeding upon intellegence, intellegence is the dependent variable
  16. Random Sampling VS Random Assignment
    • Random Sampling enables us to generalize from the sample to the population
    • random assignment controls for extraneous factors between groups, creating equal groups, helping us to infer cause and effect
Card Set
Chapter 1
Thinking Critically with Psychological Science