AMS/MCS/SOC 200-Study Guide – Ch. 7: Native Americans

  1. What dominant group response patterns did Native Americans experience?
  2. As you read the chapter, be able to identify which category each response(e.g.,the policies) falls under.
  3. About how many Native Americans lived in what would become the U.S. before European colonization?
    Most ethnohistorians place the pre-European colonization number of Native Americans who lived in what later became the United States at between 6 and 10 million. Divides into several hundred tribes with discrete languages and lifestyles.
  4. What were Columbus's first impressions of the Arawak tribe in the Caribbean? How did he treat them?
    Although he admired the Native Americans, Columbus essentially saw them as potential servants, and he assumed they had no religious convictions because he found no trappings of religion or written codes such as he was accustomed to seeing in Europe. He also thought they were all generally of good height, of pleasing appearance and well built...they must be good servants and intelligent...and they would easily become Christians.
  5. What caused the decimation of Native American populations upon early encounters with European colonizers?
    Within a few decades of the European discovery of the New World, the Native American population began to decline rapidly as a result of disease, warfare, and self destruction. Native Americans were decimated by various sicknesses that resulted from earlier contact with white explorers or traders. Native Americans were also susceptible to such diseases as measles, mumps, and chicken pox because they had not developed immunities to these Old World illnesses.
  6. What was the Iroquois response to the offer of American education for American Indian youth at Williamsburg?
    They had experience of it; Several of there young people were formerly brought up at the colleges of the Northern Provinces; they had been instructed in all there sciences; but, when they came back, they were bad runners, ignorant of every means of living in the Woods, unable to bear either cold or hunger, knew neither how to build a Cabin, take a deer, or kill an enemy, knew our Language imperfectly , were therefore neither fit for Hunters, Warriors, nor Counsellors ; they were totally good for nothing. They declined. But offered to take in a dozen of there sons and take care of there education, instruct them in all we know, and make Men of them.
  7. Despite the fact that Native American cultures differed, what are the similarities that existed among them? Make sure you understand their relationship to the land and animals, child-rearing practices, sense of honor, gender relations, and view of the world/existence (in contrast to European Americans' linear perspective)
    The Native Americans have lived in close and intimate relationship with nature, respecting and not abusing the land. They have traditionally maximized the use of any animal prey -using its skin for clothing and shelter, its bones for various tools and implements, its sinews for thread, its meat for food, its bladder for a container, and so on. Native Americans grew up under the encouragement and discipline of the extended family, not just the nuclear family. A generalized love of all children in the tribe, rather. Than just their own progeny, is common among native Americans. the children were raised in cooperative, noncompetitive, affectionate atmosphere. children learneda sense of responsibility and interdependence at an early age. the means of social control are of shame and ridicule. three Native American concept of personal honor, including the honor of ones word. once pledged, whether to a white person or to another Native American, that word was considered inviolate. The Native American womans role differed from the Mans. Womans functions were to work arms to raise children.
  8. what was the Indian Removal Act? How was it a response to the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling on the Cherokees right to the land?
    In the1830's, by a close vote, congress passed the Indian Removal Act recommended by Prestormy Andrew Jackson. This act called for the expulsion of all Native Americans from the southeastern states and their relocation to the territory west of the Mississippi River. The legislation was prompted in past by the state of Georgia, which for several years had been anexing the fertile land of the Cherokee for its expanding cotton industry. The Cherokee had rejected Georgia's assertion of legal authority to settle disputes over all land within its borders and petitioned the United States Supreme Court for protection, citing their "foreign nation"status and treaties with the federal government. The U.S.Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Cherokee keeping there land because the Cherokee were not a foreign nation, they were a domestic dependant nation and occupying its own territory president Jackson responded they have rendered there decision now let them it. Two of the three branches of government favored the removal of the Cherokee, and Jackson interpreted his overwhelming reelection in November as a mandate from the electorate to pursue that policy. Jackson thus moved to enforce the Indian Removal Act, launching one of the ugliest episodes in the nations history.
  9. How did the Cherokee attempt to live harmoniously with the whites? Why and how did U.S. government expel the Cherokee from their land?
    They decided to adopt U.S. customs and culture. In other words, they actively sought assimilation in an effort to live harmoniously with a different civilization. The whites wanted their rich land for growing cotton. The U.S. government intensified its efforts to promote disunity among the Cherokee through bribery, jailings, persecution, and denial of the services and support guaranteed under treaties. Government officials finally succeeded in getting the treaty signed on December 29, 1835, by convincing an ad hoc counsel of president Ross's Cherokee opponents. Fewer than 500 of the 17,000 Cherokee appeared, but they signed the treaty, and the senate ratified the pact on May 18, 1836. On April 10, 1838, Van Buren ordered General Winfield Scott to remove the Cherokee immediately using whatever military force was necessary.
  10. What is the trail of tears and how did it affect the Cherokee? (how many died, how did U.S. soldiers treat them, etc.)
    Between 1830-1843 more than 100,000 eastern Native Americans are forcibly relocated westward. about 12,000 die on the "Trail of Tears." The Cherokee stuffed extensively during the mass expulsion 10 to 20 Native Americans died each day from exposure and other miseries. fewer than 9,000 of the 13,000 who had set out survived to reach the Indian Territory, which is now OOklahoma. The soldiers treated them horribly they were lawless and Pilate and looted the Native Americans home and stole there valuables from there homes and from the living and the dead.
  11. when did congress terminate the sovereign nation status for native american tribes? who then became responsible for the welfare of native americans?
    In 1871. The Bureaucrats became responsible for the welfare of the Native American peoples, issuing them food rations, and supervising every aspect of their lives.
  12. What was the general allotment act of 1887? what was the rationale behind it? What was the consequence of it in terms of Native Americans ownership of the land?
    The one value that promulgated was the rugged individualism of white society rather than the cooperative, noncompetitive approach of the native American. senator Dawes, genuinely believed that the law would engender in the Native American that spirit of selfc interest that he considered the major force in white civilization. In reality it was this legislation that deprived Native Americans of even more land. its goal wad to break the backbone of Native American culture by by ending communal ownership of reservation land and instead giving each Native American a share. Loop holes in the act allowed unscrupulous whites to plunder the native Americans land, either through low cost, long term leaders out by convincing the native Americans to write wills leaving there property to white "friends". Many native Americans died soon after these Wills wetter signed.
  13. What was the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934? How did efforts of the federal government shift from this act in the 1950's?
    Franklin Roosevelt's administration shifted from a policy of forced assimilation to one of pluralism. One outcome was the Indian Reorganization Act of 1834, which ended the land-allotment program, encouraged tribal self government, extended financial credit to the tribes, gave preference in Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) employment to Native Americans, and permitted consolidation of Native American lands split up through inheritance. Further more Native Americans were encouraged to revive their ancient arts and crafts, their languages, their religions and ceremonies, and their customs and traditions. In the 1950's, new top administration personnel in president Eisenhower's Interior Department and the BIA espoused a different philosophy and tried to shift the BIA back to assimilation policy.
  14. What was the Relocation Program? Was it beneficial or not for Native Americans who took part in it?
    The Relocation Program began in there1850's the BIA offered assistance to individuals or families who wanted to relocate in urban areas to obtain jobs and living accommodations. Most of the 40,000 Native Americans who enrolled in this program went to work in low status unskilled or semi skilled jobs and found housing in the poorer sectiomd in the cities. More than one-fourth of the total number returned to the reservations. The program tapered off after 1960, due mostly to other efforts to improve Native American life.
  15. What was the Termination Act? How did it effect tribes that were terminated (specifically the Klamath and Menominee) and why?
    Termination Act was a series of bills passed in1953-1954 sought to end federal responsibility for welfare and administration of Native Americans by ending all federal services and federal liaison with tribal organizations and by dispensing receipts from the sale of reservation land among all tribal entities. Medical care, schools, road maintenance, and other federal services guaranteed under treaty obligations were immediately halted. The termination Act effected109 tribes and bands, a total of 13,263 Native Americans, and over 1.3 million acres of trust land. Two of the more prosperous tribes-the Klamath of south Oregon and the Menominee of Wisconsin. The Klamath, a tribe of 668 families totaling some 2000 individuals, termination threatens to obliterate their tribal identity. In the spring of 1968, when 77 percent of the tribes members voted to withdrawal from the tribe and receive a cash payment for their share of the land holdings. The standard of living depress dropped sharply as the tribe lost its ability to furnish water, electricity, and healthcare. Washingtons reckless policy shift cost the Menominee their hospital, their sawmill, and some of their best land, lakefront property which they had to sell because they could not afford the taxes on it.
  16. Why were Native Americans forced to boarding schools, and what was the consequences for them?
    For rehabilitation, so Native Americans could be assimilated into the American culture. They were treated poorly many abused, made fun of, punishments were severe. Many were moved far from home.
  17. How do Native Americans fare with regards to education and employment? What role do casinos play in tribes well-being? Do they benefit all tribes? Why or why not?
    Native Americans still lag behind the rest of the US population. Fewer graduate from high school and from college out of every 100 only 77 will graduate from high school and only half the graduates will enter college out of ones that enter college only 12 will get a degree. Chronic unemployment remains a serious problem, exceeding 50 percent on many reservations and reaching add high as 82 percent at the Rosebud reservation in South Dakota. About 300 casinos operate in 28 states and make a staggering $5 billion in profit each year. most of these casinos barley break even because they are too small or too remote. Only a few wealthy tribes benefit from lucrative casinos. For hundreds and thousands of Native Americans living in poverty, the casinos do nothing. While the white backed of the casinos are earning billions of dollars on their investments.
  18. How do Native Americans Fare with regards to health, suicide, violence, alcohol abuse, and housing? What are some of the reasons for each?
    Three Indian Health Service reports that Native Americans born today have a life expectancy that its 2.4 years less than that of the U.S. population as a whole, and their infants die at a rate of ten per every 1000 compared as compared to 7 for theU.S. population of all races. Suicide is high nearly twice as high for children 15-24 as that of the general public
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AMS/MCS/SOC 200-Study Guide – Ch. 7: Native Americans
AMS/MCS/SOC 200-Study Guide – Ch. 7: Native Americans