MCS200-Chapter 10.txt

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    • description "Study Guide Chapter 8"
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    • 1. Slavery was legal in which part of the United States? What are slavery reparations?
    • Black leaders who argue that if Presedent Andrew Johnson had not stripped the freed slaves of the land given to them by General William Tecumseh Sherman under Special Field Orders No. 15, their descendents might now control a much larger share of the U.S. wealth, proponents seek cash payments now to right and old wrong.
  1. According to most historians, when did race and racism emerge as ideologies, and why? How does W.E.B. DuBois interpret the rise of racism?
    The 16th and 17th centuries. This was the period of European exploration and imperialism, during which Europeans were brought into contact with many physically different, less technologically advanced peoples. Labor was degraded, humanity was despised, the theory of "race"arose. There came a new doctrine of universal Labor: mankind were of two sorts-the superior and the inferior; there inferior toiled for the superior; and the superior were the real men, the inferior half men out less. The white people had the right to live upon the Labor and poverty of colored peoples of the world. In order to establish the righteousness of this point of view, science and religion, government and industry, were wheeling into line. The word "Negro"was used for the first time in the world's history to tie color to race and blackness to slavery and degradation.
  2. What is institutionalized racism? What is an example of institutionalized racism today?
    It occurs when laws attempt to legitimize differential racial treatment, took a new form after slavery in the United States was abolished. During the reconstruction period and almost to the end of the19th century, southern blacks generally had greater access to stores, restaurants, public transportation, bars, and theaters than in the first half of the 20th century. Example of Institutionalised Racism is the High School drop out rate amongst rich whites and poor blacks.
  3. When was Plessy v. Ferguson? What did it do?
    1896. The U.S. supreme Court ruling upheld the "seperate but equal" railroad accommodations for blacks and whites.
  4. What were Jim Crow laws? In what part of the U.S. were they established? In what decade did they begin? In what decade did they end? (Answers to these questions will be over a few pgs in the text)
    The segregation laws, mostly of20th century vintage, reflected racist attitudes that remained strong throughout the South decades after slavery had ended. The South. For the first six decades of the20th Century.
  5. What is cumulative causation (aka vicious-circle phenomenon)? How is structural discrimination during the Jim Crow era an example of this “vicious-circle phenomenon"?
  6. 7. What were the reasons that African Americans began to migrate to the North in the 1910’s?
    Few segregationist laws existed. Jim Crow Laws and poor economic conditions were the major push factor for moving north and promises of better wages, education, and political freedom. The war was under way with Europe and Northern industry was reaping the benefits. The large number of immigrant Labor was dwindling.
  7. Define (again) de jure segregation and de facto segregation. During the first half of the 20th century (and into the second half), which form existed in the South? And which form existed in the North?
    de jure - The majority group may institutionalize this form of segregation by law. de facto - The majority group may establish it informally through pervasive practice. During the first half pig the 20th century the south experienced de jure segregation and the south experienced de facto segregation.
  8. When did the Ku Klux Klan begin and why? In the 20th century, who did it target, and why? Is the KKK just a thing of the past?
    originally organized in the south during Reconstruction, primarily to intimidate blacks so they could would not exercise their new political rights, the Ku Klux Klan reorganized in the 20th century with a broader range of target groups. In 1915, William J. Simmons resurrected the movement. Art first, the Klan concentrated on maintaining white supremacy by intimidating white employers as well as black workers and potential voters. As the Klan spread northward, its racist orientation broadened into a more general nationalism and nativism. The Klan thus evolved into a multixenophobic organization in which southern and eastern European Catholics and Jews, as well as blacks, were seen as a threat to the nations character. No they are were ever racial strife occurs, its members come to sermonize, recruit, and stir up trouble.
  9. What did the U.S. Supreme Court decide in 1954? (By the way, this is the Brown v. Board of Education case)…know what institution(s), specifically, this decision covered?
    That the "separate but equal" doctrine was unconstitutional. Overturned school segregation laws.
  10. Who is Rosa Parks and what did she do? What did her actions lead to? Extra Credit: Who is Emmett Till? What happened to him, when and what role did this play in the civil rights movement?
    Rosa Parks in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, a tired black seamstress on her way home from work, found the seats in the black section of the bus all occupied and so sat down in an open seat in the section reserved for whites; when she refused the bus drivers demand that she relinquish the seat, she was arrested. Through organization efforts of Main Luther King Jr., the black community staged a successful bus boycott in protest. For months later, the NAACP argued the case in the Federal District Court, which ruled against segregated seating on municipal buses and the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the decision. In 1955 Emmett Till was an African-American boy who was murdered in Mississippi at the age of 14 after reportedly flirting with a white woman Till's murder is noted as a pivotal event motivating the African-American Civil Rights Movement.
  11. What happened in 1957 in Little Rock Arkansas? How did President Eisenhower respond?
    Confrontation in the fall of 1957 at Little Rock Central High School in Arkansas was a watershed event in desegregation. Here the states defiance of the supreme Court could not be ignored because the governor called the national guard to forcibly block implementation of a federal Court order to integrate the high school. President Eisenhower, who had personally opposed the1954 ruling, acted decisively by federalizing the National Guard and sending regular army troops to Little Rock to ensure compliance.
  12. The 1960s sit-ins and freedom rides are examples of which minority response pattern?
  13. What was the underlying philosophy of Dr. King’s form of nonviolent protests? How did younger black activists respond to this philosophy, and why?
    Dr. Kings aim was "to awaken a sense of moral shame in the opponent."Such a philosophy presumed that the opponent had moral shame to awaken, and that moral shame, if awakened, would suffice. Many civil rights activists came to doubt three first and deny three second. Civil Right movement grew and the success pig sit-ins convinced many people that direct action was a quicker and more effective means pig achieving total desegregation than protracted Court battles.
  14. What did the Civil Rights Act of 1964 legislate?
    It was the most far reaching legislation against racial discrimination ever passed. It mandated that equal standards be enforced for voter eligibility in federal elections. It prohibited racial discrimination and refusal of service on racial grounds in all places of public accommodation, including eating and lodging establishments and places of entertainment, recreation, and service.
  15. What does “Black Power” refer to, and who advanced the slogan?
    Stokely Carmichael, the Herzog SNCC, advanced the slogan "Black Power"- a declaration that civil rights goals could be achieved only through concerted black efforts. It symbolized the attainment of what Kurt Lewin called a "sense of peoplehood"and what Franklin Giddings identified as a "consciousness of kind"
  16. According to the National Commission on Civil Disorders, what were the major causes of the 1960s riots?
    It concluded that, although specific grievances varied somewhat from city to city, there were consistent patterns in who the rioters were, how the riots originated, and what the rioters wanted. The most intense casual factors were police practices, unemployment and underemployment, and inadequate housing. In 1968 report, the so-called Kerner commission warned that the United States was "moving toward two societies, one black, one white-separate and unequal."
  17. What sparked the 1992 Los Angeles Riot? What was one reason for the animosity that contributed to the black-Korean conflict?
    After a jury acquitted for white city police officers of criminal wrong doing in the video taped beating of black motorist Rodney King. The Rodney King verdict was three spark that detonated a powdered keg built of the pathologies resulting from poverty-squalid living conditions, frustration, alienation, anger, and family disintegration. Part of the animosity stems from the growing presence and economic success of Korean merchants in black neighborhoods Eyre poverty and unemployment ate wide spread.
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MCS200-Chapter 10.txt
MCS200-Chapter 10
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