chap 18

  1. autocrine
    produced and released into ecf.signal acts on same type of cell
  2. paracrin
    produced and released into ECF. signal acts on diff kinda cell
  3. neurohormone
    made by neuron released into blood. travels via blood to target tissue
  4. neurotransmitter
    made by neuron-released into synaptic cleft. binds to cell or 2nd neuron
  5. hormone
    released by cell/gland travel to target tissue via blood
  6. pheromone
    released into enviroment affect other members of same species
  7. patterns of hormone secretion chronic
    • relatively stable blood levels all the time
    • ex thyroid hormone(T3 T4)
  8. patterns of hormone secretion cycle
    • increase/decrease@regular invals
    • ex hormones that trigger ovulation
  9. patterns of hormone secetion acute
    • increase in response to stimulus
    • ex insulin
  10. changes in receptors over time receptors
    on target tissue specific # of receptors can change
  11. changes in receptors over time down regulation
    down # receptors usually due to low blood level
  12. changes in receptors over time up regulation
    high # in receptors due to 1) blood level of hormone 2)binding of hormone #1 cause an increase in receptors for hormone #2
  13. anterior pituitary is also known as the
  14. posterior pituitary
    neurohypophysis (releases 2 neurohormones)
  15. hypophyseal portal system
    network of capillaries-connect hypothalamus 2 anterior pituitary
  16. hormones produced by paraventricular nucli of hypothalamus
  17. hormones produced by supraoptic nucli of hypothalamus
  18. 4 pro-opiomelanocortin hormones
    • melanocyte stimulating hormone MSH, lipotropin,
    • B-endorphin, adrenocorticotropic H ACTH.
    • Pro-opiomelanocordon(come from a precurser protein)
  19. the steps involved in the production of thyroid hormones
    • 1) iodine ions trasported into follicle*gets from diet usually salt
    • 2)combine Iodine w.thyrosine (Iodinate the thyrosine)
    • this producesmonoiodinethyronine-T(1 Iodides)
    • diiodothronine-T2(two Iodides)
    • 3)T1 and T2 sent into center of follicle
  20. cause of diabetes insipidus
    deficiency in ADH production(lack of)*large amount of dilute urine *excess thirst
  21. type 1 diabetes aka juvinile diabetes
    failure to make insulin (insulin injection)
  22. type 2 diabetes
    • make insulin but receptors don't work correct
    • (USUALLY MAKE PLENTY OF INSULIN but their receptors can't use it. obesity "adult onset"
    • TARGETbone&muscle in kids &women
    • EFFECTbone growth in kids and women up muscle mass.(no effect on men its a weak form of testosterone)
  24. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • Released:anterior pituitary
    • Target:adrenal cortex
    • Effect:up release glucocorticoids
    • Released:zona glomerulosa
    • Target:kidney and salt receptors
    • Effect:increased reabsorption of sodium,secretion of potassium &hydrogen eat salty food (reabsorb more H2O)
    • R:posterior pituitary produced (hypothalamus released post oituitary)
    • T:collecting duct,thirst center(hypothalamus)
    • E:up H2O reabsobtion,down urine output,up thirst
    • (up blood vol and up blood pressure)
    • R:anterior pituitary
    • T:Brain
    • E:decreases pain awareness (morphine) improves mood
    • R:thyroid hormones(parafolicular)
    • Tbones and kidneys
    • Edecreased osteocast activity&increased osteoblast activity,increased secretion of calcium at kidneys. (released when blood ca2+ levels r high. end result is a decrease in blood ca2+)
    • R:hypothalamic
    • T:anterior pituitary
    • Eincreased release of adrenocorticotropic hormone
  30. cortisol
    • Released by zona fasiculata
    • Target most body tissues
    • Effect protein breakdown in muscle,increased gluconeogensis,lipolysis,resistance to stress,anti-inflammatory effects,suppress the immune system.
    • down inflammation overtime suppress immune system
  31. estrogen
    • released by ovaries
    • target tissue most cells
    • effect development of female genitals,development&maintainence of secondary sexual charteristics,regulation of menstral cycle.
  32. follicle stimulating hormone FSH
    • RELEASED ANTERIOR anterior pituitary
    • TARGET TISSUE males:nurse cells of testies females ovulation follicles
    • EFFECT maturation of cells,molecules mature and estrogen secretion
    • RELEASED BY pancreatic islets
    • TARGET TISSUE liver,muscle,adipose
    • EFFECTincreased uptake&use of glucose,increased glycogen(up gluconeogensis&up glucogen breakdown)=up in glucose
  34. gonadotropin releasing hormone(GnRH)
    • RELEASED BYhypothalamic
    • TARGET TISSUEanterior pituitary
    • EFFECTincreased release of follicle stimulating hormone(FSH)&Lutenizing hormone(LH)
  35. Growth Hormone Inhibiting Hormone (GIH)
    • RELEASED BYhypothalamus
    • TARGET TISSUEanterior pituitay
    • EFFECTdecreased release of growth hormone
  36. Growth Hormone Releasing hormone (GRH)
    • R:hypothalamus
    • T:anterior pituiaty
    • E:increase release of human growth hormone
  37. HCG Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
    • TARGETcorpus luteum
    • EFFECTmaintains Corpus Luteum and causes an increase in progesterone secretion
    • SECRETIONmaintains uterine lining
  38. Human Growth Hormone (hCg)
    • TARGET all cells
    • EFFECT growth(kids) growth in skin,hair and nails
    • Fat breakdown,decrease synth of glycogen(increases glucose) increase glucogens(up in blood glucose)
  39. Inhibin
    • RELEASEDnurse cells,ovaria follicles
    • TARGETanterior pituitary,
    • EFFECT*on nurse cells*(Inhibits)production FSH down sperm production
    • *ovaria follicles* decreased secretion of (FSH)
  40. Leptin
    • RELEASEDadipose
    • TARGET TISSUE brain
    • EFFECTregulation of appitite
  41. Lipotropin
    • RELEASED BYanterior pituitary
    • TARGET TISSUEadipose
    • EFFECTincreased fat breakdown
    • RELEASED BYanterior pituitary
    • TARGET:MALES target intersitual cells in testes FEMALEStarget ovarian follicles
    • EFFECTmales production of testosterone
    • females trigger ovulation up progesterone secreion
  43. Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH)
    • RELEASEDanterior pituitay
    • TARGETmelanocyte
    • EFFECTincrease production of melanin (usually due 2 sun exposure)
  44. melatonin
    • RELEASEDpineal gland
    • TARGETbrain
    • EFFECTinhibits production of GnRH(down production)
    • prolonged secretion can cause depression ciradian-sleep/wake cycles(make melodine when its dark out)
  45. oxytocin
    • RELEASEDposterior pituitary
    • TARGETuterus,mammary glands
    • EFFECTS up uterine contractions (pitocin is synthetic form) released and milk is increased
  46. pancreatic polypeptide
    • RELEASED Fcells
    • TARGET pancreas& gallbladder
    • EFFECTdecreased pancreatic secretions & decreased contraction of
    • gallbladder*decreased glass bladder contraction* *down bile release*
    • *decreased secretion of digestive secretion of pancreas*
  47. Parathyroid Hormone
    • RELEASEDparatyroid glands
    • TARGETbones,kidneys,and small intestines
    • EFFECTincreased osteoclast activity,increased absorption of calcium in small intestine,decrerased secretion of kidneys
  48. prolactin
    • released anterior pituitary
    • TARGETmammary gland
    • EFFECTup milk production and may inhibit ovulation
  49. progesterone
    • RELEASEDcorpus luteum
    • TARGETmost cells
    • EFFECTprepairs uterus 4 implantation,development of secondary sexual charteristics
  50. Prolactin Inhibiting Hormone (PIH)
    • RELEASED hypothalamic
    • TARGETanterior pituitay
    • EFFECTdecrease release of prolactin
  51. prolactin releasing hormone (PRH)
    • RELEASEDhypothalamic
    • TARGETanterior pituitary
    • EFFECTincrease release of prolactin
    • RELEASEDendocrine secretion&other tissues
    • TARGETpubic symphysis
    • EFFECTrelaxation of connective tissues
    • RELEASEDadipose
    • TARGETliver
    • EFFECTdown sensitivity 2 insulin,up adipose=up resistance=type 2 diabetes
    • RELEASEDdelta cells
    • TARGETalpha&beta cells
    • EFFECTInhibition of the production of insulin&glucagen
  55. T3 AND T4
    • RELEASEDthyroid hormones
    • TARGETall cells
    • EFFECTSincreased metabolic rate,increase in body temp,growth of bone,teeth and hair,permissive effect on HGH
  56. testosterone
    • RELEASEDintersitial cells
    • TARGETmost cells
    • EFFECTincrease sperm production,development of males genitalia,development & maintainence of secondary sexual charteristics
  57. Thyrois stimulating hormone(TSH)
    • released hypothalmic
    • TARGETthyroid
    • EFFECTup production T3/T4
  58. thyropin releasing hormone(trh)
    • RELEASED hypothalmic
    • TARGETanterior pituitary
    • EFFECTincreased release of human growth hormone
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chap 18