Lectures 4 and 6 Plant Bio

  1. Tissue Culture
    pieces of a plant cultured in a medium containing mineral elements and hormones necessary for growth.
  2. Auxin
    the basic plant growth hormone. Primarily involved in the control of elongation, it also regulates cell division and a host of other plant responses to the environment.
  3. Cytokinin
    the hormone involved in controlling cell division.
  4. Phototropic Responses
    the reaction of plants to light coming from one side. Growth toward the light is called positive phototropism.
  5. Abscisic Acid
    the growth hormone that controls bud opening and seed germination.
  6. Abscission layer
    a layer of cells that dies in the fall, allowing the leaf to drop from the tree.
  7. Callus
    a mass of undifferentiated plant cells.
  8. Endosperm
    a tissue formed during the double fertilization. Most endosperm is triploid (3n) and is important in the development of the embryo.
  9. Ethylene
    a growth hormone that is a gas. Involved in fruit ripening and the formation of abscission layers.
  10. Gibberellin
    basically responsible for internode elongation. Also involved with flowering and seed germination.
  11. Macronutrients
    elements needed in large amounts for plant growth.
  12. Plant Growth Hormone
    chemical compounds that regulate plant growth.
  13. Centromere
    a portion of the chromosome where the two chromatids are joined.
  14. Chromatid
    each chromosome is composed of two identical chromatids joined at the centromere.
  15. Chromosome
    the heredity material of the cell
  16. Coenocyte
    a cell or organism that has many nuclei in a common cytoplasm.
  17. Cytokineses
    the division of one cell into two
  18. Diploid
    nulcei containing pairs of homologous chromosomes
  19. Haploid
    nuclei containing a single set of chromosomes
  20. Homologous Chromosomes
    a pair of identical chromosomes
  21. Kinetochore
    the place where the spindle fibers attach to the chromatid.
  22. Mitosis- the division of the nucleus.

    Name the stages and what happens in each stage.
    Interphase: the period between active division when the cells DNA is doubled.

    Prophase: begins with the shortening of the chroosomes and ends with the dissolution of the nucleolus and the breakdown of the nuclear membrane.

    Metaphase: the alignment of the chromosomes on the cell equator and the attaching of the spindle fibers to the kinetochores.

    Anaphase: the centromeres divide and the chromosomes move to the poles.

    Telophase: the chromosomes reach the poles and begin to relax. The nuclear membrane reforms as do the nucleoli.
  23. Spindle Fibers
    fibers of protein that connect the kinetochore to the poles.
Card Set
Lectures 4 and 6 Plant Bio
Lectures 4 and 6 Plant Bio