1. Bioarchaeology
    combination of archaeology and physical anthropology- human culture and human history
  2. Physical anthropology
    tension over races- looked at history and tried to explain it with crude ideas like barbarism- used physical appearance to explain history- intelligence from body size/head ratios. Then native americans began to study anthro and arch. and they found different results
  3. T of F "Race exhists as a biological factor
    false- No group of humans that is totally isolated from one another biologically
  4. How do we know race is not a biological factor?
    African blacks and aboriginals are some of the two farthest related genetically but they are both dark skinned
  5. Osteology
    The study of human bones- used to be very unimportant and pushed to the side
  6. How do bones determine sex? Are their any downfalls?
    • Sex
    • i.e. Robusticity (General relative size), Pelvis formation and see if there are groves from birth, Shins, sternum- shorter for women, skull (men larger around jaw bone and brow), Ancient DNA but expensive and unreliable, only good for matuer skeleton >26. Almost impossible for children under child bearing age. (MAYBE arch artifacts but this is hard)
  7. How do you age a skeleton?
    • Wear in joints- (Varied on work role and disease)
    • # of molars
    • # of baby teeth
    • Enamel formation (like tree rings)
    • Articulating ends of bones
    • Problems- can't determine life exp- only have a samle
  8. How to determine Height?
    • Long bones based on current populations (54% of stature)
    • Footprint 15.5% of height
  9. How to determine weight?
    dry bones are 20-30% of body weight, obesity leaves marks on skeleton but could be from other factors
  10. How to measure familt relationships
    • DNA testing- Little Salt Springs
    • Polydactyl- extra teeth, dental patterns
  11. Health and trauma
    • enamel formation
    • Bone wear and tear-
    • Erosion- lepercy, polio
    • Growth Arthritus
    • Altered Structure Osteoperosis
    • Obvious things like neck lengthining or feet binding
  12. Paleopathology
    Study of diseases using bone
  13. Harris lines
    indicate interruptions in nutrition
  14. Social Archaeology
    How to determine social organization

    i.e. a band (small number of people (20-50), temporary camps, 100% wild food, ie rock shelters

    In hunting, creator of arrow that kills the animal gets credit for kill

    Promotes alliance but levels social status that could have been based on skill

    Can tell whether nomadic based on formation of bones

    Decreases female ovulation rate/extended nursing à balances population with natural resources

    Modern examples: Inuit, San, Australian Aboriginal

    • Tribe- Up to 1,000 people- beginings og agriculture and architecture and ceremony buildings ie stonehendge
    • i.e. New Guinea Highlanders E Africa

    • Chiefdom- 2,000-20,000 people
    • Raking, large permanent settlements

    State- 20,000 plus ie rome- Has a capital and buildings for beauracracy, taxes, public works, standing milatary
  15. Cognitive Archaeology
    • Study of thought through material remains, Binford would feel their thoughts not their actions influenced material record
    • -Driven by available data
    • -CONTEXT is essential, shows more than artifact alone i.e. Hatshepsup statue- defaced at a certain time
  16. Epiphenomenal
    Not important (secondary phenomenon that occurs paralell a primary phemonenon)
  17. Cognitive Map
    The shared symbol set and interpretive system used by a group of people
  18. Symbols
    • Written symbols (Protoliteracy- prewritting, ie INCAN quipu, Calenders scoring on stone) (Restricted Literacy- full writting system used for narrow subject matter or by small part of the population i.e. Cuneiform Tablets for economic records)
    • System of measurement (Mayan, Jew calender)
    • Astronomy(New Grange in Ireland)
    • Units of Length and wieght ( Mohenjo Daro, Inida was for weight)
    • Space and City design- Capitals diferent because of growth patterns and symbols from the overall design
  19. Archaeology of Religion
    • Presence of focused location- distinctive place set apart with special paraphemalia or repeated pattern evidence
    • Maintenance- either hyper-maintained or allowed to be very dirty/cluttered (Incan mummy burial- continue to have socail interactions)
    • Artifacts (Cross Today)
  20. Archaeology of death
    • Grave goods- reflect
    • Social Status
    • Beliefts about afterlife
    • (Ritual/funerary behavior)

    • Taking things out of circulation- shows
    • -influence
    • -Abundance of goods
    • -necessity in transition from lif to death
  21. Why study trade?
    Sourcing- we know raw material and where products were made

    Transfer of goods= culture change/Ideology can result from trade

    Aztecs took over Toltecs and absorbed Toltec culture into their own

    Ideas move with goods- Metallurgy only used for horse gear for several hundred years after it had been exposed in England

    Trade reflects relationships

    Population movments
  22. Establishes and cements social relations
    • barter w friends
    • haggle with strangers
  23. Gift Exchange i.e.
    Creates social network NW Coast pot latch
  24. External exchange
    traded over greater distance from one social unit to another
  25. Style vs. Materials
    Style is associated w time pd or region

    • Materials local or imported and how much is portable?
    • how rare?
  26. Visual
    Thin section petrology- look at different material components under a microscope
  27. Chemical
    Trace elements analysis using stable isotopes od copper and hygrogen
  28. Why study trade?
    • sourcing, presige vs. commodities
    • Distribution
    • Production
    • Consumption
    • Interactional spheres
  29. Kennwick man and NAGPRA Native american grave protection blah
    have to prove cultural affiliation
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