AP Gov chapter 18.txt

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  1. Social Welfare policies
    Policies that provide benefits to individuals, either through entitlements or means testing.
  2. Entitlement programs
    Government benefits that certain qualified individuals are entitled to by law, regardless of need. 5 of every 6 dollars for social programs go to entitlement programs (top three: social security, medicare, medicaid)
  3. Social Ensurance
    • Two forms:
    • 1) Entitlement Programs
    • 2) Means tested
  4. income distribution
    The "shares" of the national income earned by various groups.
  5. income
    The amount of funds collected between any two points in time. Generally the two points are a year apart.
  6. wealth
    The value of assets owned
  7. poverty line
    A method used to count the number of poor people, it considers what a family must spend for an "austere" standard of living.
  8. feminization of poverty
    The increasing concentration of poverty among women, especially unmarried women and their children. Biggest group: African American, inner city women.
  9. progressive tax
    A tax by which the government takes a greater share of the income of the rich than of the poor- for example, when a rich family pays 50% of its income in taxes, and a poor family pays 5%.
  10. proportional tax (flat tax)
    A tax by which the government takes the same share of income from everyone, rich and poor alike - for examp
  11. Regressive tax
    A tax in which the burden falls relatively more heavily on low-income groups than on wealthy taxpayers. The opposite of a progressive ta, in which tax rates increase as income increases.
  12. Earned income tax credit
    A "negative income tax" that provides income to very poor individuals n lieu of charging them federal income taxes.
  13. transfer payments
    Benefits given by the government directly to indiviuals. Transfer payments may be either cash transfers, such as Social Security payments and retirement payments to former government employees, or in-kind transfers, such as food stamps and low-interest loans for college education.
  14. Social Security Act of 1935
    Created both the _______ and a national assistance program for poor children usually called AFDC.

    Blank: Social Security Program
  15. Means Tested benifits
    • Available to those below poverty line
    • Eligibility: must prove your eligible
    • "Deserving" disability, loss of "bread winner" (widow)
    • Controversial- welfare
    • "in kind" benefit - not monetary but has worth ie. food-stamps free breakfast/lunch
  16. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act
    The official name of the welfare reform law of 1996
  17. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
    Once called "Aid to Families with Dependent Children", the new name for public assistance to needy families.
  18. Social Security Trust Fund
    The "bank account" into which Social Security contributions are "deposited" and used to pay out eligible recipients.
  19. Income Distribution
    income between various groups. (could be races, gender, etc) Greatest divide: rich and poor (began in 1980)
  20. Relative Deprivation
    A perception that you are not doing as well financially as someone else. Could be biased off of clothes, possessions, school you go to.
  21. Poverty Line
    What a typical family or person would need to get by. Minimum amount needed to get by. People below: African Americans, Hispanics, inner city, unmarried women.
  22. How does the government pay?
  23. State mandates
    • Pertains to welfare. Each state sets these limits:
    • only certain products
    • poverty line
    • weekly/biweekly checks
    • drug screening
    • some give $ for dacare
  24. History of Social Welfare
    • 1. Civil War- pension benifits
    • 2. FDR- New Deal
    • 3.) Johnson "great society"
    • 4.) Reagan- war on anti-poverty
    • 5.) Clinton- new welfare bill
  25. Social Welfare- FDR
    • New deal:
    • 1935 Social Security
    • every state has its own mandates
  26. Social Welfare - Johnson
    • Great Society;
    • enacts welfare
    • 1960- Increased federal programs, targeted poor and elderly
    • 1964: declare "war on poverty", Civil Rights Act
    • 1965: Voting Rights, medicare, foodstamps
  27. Social Welfare- Reagan
    • Declared war on anti-poverty
    • 1980: people has negative opinion of welfare programs
    • because of abuse of welfare system
    • so he cut government spending from welfare & social security, gave that money to defense
  28. Social Welfare- Clinton
    • 1. Each state receives fixed amount
    • 2 Once you're on welfare, only available for 2 years
    • 3 lifetime max of 5 years
    • pro: decreased # of people on welfare , state and federal pending went down, system seemed to wrk
    • con: once you hit a recession , system doesn't work
  29. Future of Social Welfare (Social Security)
    • 1. Social Security: debt (uncontrollable expenditures)
    • baby boomer gen is reaching retirement
    • inflation is increasing (4%)
    • medical cost is increasing
    • no one solution

    • Solutions: privatizing it. (Bush)
    • Raise retirement age
    • raise taxes
    • cut from other programs
  30. Do social programs work?
    • Initially they worked
    • but some people benefit from the system and work it. The stigma of welfare lessened in the 70s.
  31. Other countries
    France- most holidays (have less violent and high productivity); free daycare for people on welfare. Raised retirement age.

    • Have drug centers. Many tax more than US.
    • USA- AARP (largest, politically organization)
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AP Gov chapter 18.txt
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