Ap gov chapter 15.txt

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    • Bureaucracy
    • According to Max Weber, a hierarchical authority structure that uses task specialization, operates on the merit principle, and behaves with impersonality. Bureaucracies govern modern states.
  2. Patronage
    One of the key inducements used by political machines. A patronage job, promotion, or contract is one that is one that is given for political reasons rather than for merit or competence alone. Compare civil service and the merit principal. (Also part of the "spoils system".
  3. Pendleton Ciil Service Act
    Passed in 1883, created federal __________ so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than patronage. (or the spoils system.)
  4. Civil Service
    A system of hiring and promotion based on the merit principle and the desire to create a nonpartisan government service.
  5. merit principal
    • The idea that hiring should be based on entrance exams and promotion ratings to produce administration by people with talent and skill.
    • Tests: bar exam, degree required, physical.
  6. Hatch Act
    A federal law prohibiting government employees from active participation in partisan politics
  7. Office of Personnel Management
    The office in charge of hiring for most agencies of the federal government, using elaborate rules in the process.
  8. GS (General Schedule) rating
    • A schedule for federal employees, ranging from GS 1 to GS 18, by which salaries can be keyed to rating and experience.
    • (Senior executive- G18)
  9. Senior Executive Service
    An elite cadre of about 9,000 federal government managers, established by the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978, who are mostly career officials but include some political appointees who do not require Senate confirmation.
  10. independent regulatory commission
    A government agency responsible for some sector of the economy, making and enforcing rules to protect the public interest. It also judges disputes over these rules.
  11. Government corporation
    A government organization that, like business corporations, provides a service that could be provided by the private sector and typically charges for its services. The U.S. Postal Service is an example. Compare independent regulatory agency and independent executive agency. Amtrak and TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority)
  12. independent executive agency
    • The government not accounted for by cabinet departments, independent regulatory commissions, and government corporations. Its administrators are typically appointed by the president and serve at the president's
    • pleasure. NASA and NSF (national science foundation)is an example.
  13. Administrative discretion
    authority of administrative actors to select among various responses to a given problem, especially when rules do not fit or more than one rule applies.
  14. Bureacracy
    • 1)Many levels
    • 2) Hierarchical
    • 3) Deal with "task specialization"
    • 4) Extensive rules that must be followed from federal to local level.
  15. Most bureaucrats are:
    • Men
    • White
    • Only 12% are in Washington (only top levels)
  16. Policy Implementation
    The state of policymaking between the establishment of a policy and the consequences of the policy for the people whom it affects. Implementation involves translating the goals and objectives of a policy into an operating, ongoing program.
  17. Standard operating procedures (SOPs)
    Better known as SOPs, these procedures are used by bureaucrats to bing uniformity to complex organizations. Uniformity improves fairness and makes personnel interchangeable. See also adminisitrative discretion. ie Schools have to operate 180 days. Have to be 18 or older to operate meat slicer
  18. Street-level bureaucrats
    A phrase coined by Michael Lipsky, referring to those bureaucrats who are in constant contact with the public and have considerable administrative discretion. Teacher has to teach you, can choose how.
  19. regulation
    The use of government authority to control or change some practice in the private sector. Regulations pervade the daily lives of people and institutions.ie. Nuclear power plants, additives...
  20. deregulation
    The lifting of restrictions on business, industry, and professional activities for which government rules had been established and that bureaucracies hd been created to administer.
  21. Command-and-control policy
    According to Charles Schultze, the typical system of regulation whereby government tells business ow to reach certain goals, checks that these commands are followed, and punishes offenders. Compare to incentive system
  22. Incentive system
    According to Charles Schultze, a more effective and efficient policy than command-and-control; in the incentive system, market-like strategies are used to manage public policy.
  23. Executive orders
    Regulation originating from the executive branch. Executive orders are one method presidents can use to control the bureaucracy.
  24. Iron Triangles
    A mutually dependent relationship between bureaucratic agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees or subcommittees. Iron triangles dominate some areas of domestic policymaking.
  25. Four levels of Cabinet Members:
    • 1) 15 Cabinet Members (G16- 18) {Defense is largest)
    • 2) Regulatory Agencies
    • 3) Government corporations
    • 4) Independent executive agencies.
  26. Regulatory Agencies
    • protect public interest and set rules. (called enforcement group) ie.
    • FCC-public airways.
    • FTC- trade
    • SEC- stock
    • FDA- Food
    • OSHA-work related
  27. How are bureaucrats used.
    • 1) Implementation of policy (legislation > law > carried out.
    • 2) Create policy
    • 3) Regulate private sector (feds v private sector- leads to controversy)
  28. Policymakers do:
    • 1) Creation (laws)
    • 2) Translation -laws
    • 3) Coordination (bureaucrats)
  29. Problems
    • 1) faulty design. ie Food stamps (being allowed to use them on alcohol/tobacco)
    • 2) Lack of clarity (Title IX)
    • 3) Lack of resources (no money, NCLB)
    • 4) Fragmented (50 states to implement policy)
  30. Interstate Commerce Commission
    Regulations have to maintained in every state.
  31. How regulation occurs
    • 1) Direction (comes from law passed by congress.)
    • 2) Create set of clear rules
    • 3) Then regulate it, enforce it though inspection, retesting, recertification.
    • 4) Changed through complaints
  32. Pro-regulation
    • 1) Safety
    • 2) Environment safety
    • 3) Personal Protection
  33. Against Regulations
    • 1) More regulation, more cost, more expensive product
    • 2) Deflates dollar, we buy other stuff.
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Ap gov chapter 15.txt