Bio Honors

  1. Chromosomes
    Are rod-shaped structures made of DNA & proteins
  2. Histones
    Proteins that help maintain the shape of the chromosome & aid in the tight packing of DNA
  3. Chromatid
    1/2 of a chromosome
  4. Centromere
    Where the 2 cromatids of a chromosome attatch
  5. Chromatin
    A less tightly coiled DNA-protein complex
  6. Sex Chromosomes
    Chromosomes that determine the sex of an organism
  7. Autosomes
    The chromosomes that aren't sex chromosomes
  8. Homologous Chromosoms
    2 copies of each autosome
  9. Karyotype
    A photomicrograph of the chromosomes in a normal dividing cell found in a human
  10. Diploid
    Cells that have 2 sets of chromosomes
  11. Haploid
    Cells that contain 1 set of chromosomes for ex: egg & sperm cells
  12. Binary Fission
    The division of a prokaryotic cell into 2 offspring cells
  13. Mitosis
    A type of cell division that results in new cells with the genetic material that is identical to the genetic material of the original cell
  14. Asexual Reproduction
    The production of offspring from one parent
  15. Meiosis
    A type of cell division that results in the formation of gametes
  16. Gametes
    Haploid reproductive cells
  17. Interphase
    Time between cell divisions
  18. Cytokinesis
    The division of the cell's cytoplasm
  19. G1 Phase
    • 1st phase of interphase:
    • Offspring cells grow to mature size
  20. S Phase
    • 2nd phase of interphase:
    • Cell's DNA is copied
  21. G2 Phase
    • 3rd phase of interphase:
    • The time gap following DNA synthesis & proceeding cell division
  22. G0 Phase
    • Exit of interphase:
    • Cells don't copy DNA & don't prepare for cell division
  23. Prophase
    • 1st stage of mitosis:
    • shortening & tight coiling of copied DNA into rod-shaped chromosomes, the nucleolus & nuclear membrane break down & disappear
  24. Spindle Fibers
    1 of the microtubles that extend across a dividing eukaryotic cell; asists in the movement of chromosomes
  25. Metaphase
    • 2nd stage of mitosis:
    • The chromosomes line up along the midling of the dividing cell
  26. Anaphase
    • 3rd stage of mitosis:
    • The chromatidsof each chromosome begin moving toward opposite poles of the cells
  27. Telophase
    • 4th stage of mitosis:
    • A cleavage furrow is formed
  28. Cell Plate
    The precursor of a new plant cell wall that forms during cell divisions & divides a cell into 2
  29. Cell Growth (G1) Checkpoint
    Check to see if the cells were healthy & have grown to a suitable size
  30. DNA Synthesis (G2) Checkpoint
    Check the results of DNA replication
  31. Mitosis Checkpoint
    Enters back into the cell cycle after this checkpoint
Card Set
Bio Honors
Chp. 8