PRAXIS II Elementary Education 5015 - Reading and Language Arts Curriculum

  1. Phonemic Awareness
    Acknowledgement of sounds and words

    • Onset: The word "bad" can be changed to "dad"
    • Rhyme: The word "bad" sounds like "dad"
  2. To be phonemically aware, means that...
    ...The reader and listener can recognize and manipulate specific sounds in spoken words.
  3. The majority of phonemic awareness tasks are _________.

    The key in phonemic awareness is that when you teach it to children, it can be taught with the students' eyes closed.
  4. Blend is just a fancy word for ________.
  5. Individual sounds within a word are called _________.
  6. Phonemic awareness is crucial to emergent literacy.
  7. Phonics
    The connection between the sounds and letters on a page
  8. As opposed to phonemic awareness, phonics must be taught with a child's eyes __________.
  9. Phonological Awareness
    The ability of the reader to recognize the sounds of a spoken language
  10. The development of phonological skills may begin during the ________ ________.
    Pre-K Years
  11. The following are examples of ___________________.

    -Rhyming and Syllabification
    -Blending Sounds into Words
    -Identifying the beginning or starting sounds of words and ending or closing sounds of words
    -Recognizing small words contained in bigger words by removing starting sounds (hear to ear)
    -Breaking words down into sounds (segmenting)
    Phonological awareness skills
  12. The following are all effective _________ strategies.

    -Knowledge o0f patters, sounds, letter-sound association, and syllables
    -Memorizing sight words
    -Writing those words correctly many times
    -Writing the words in personal writing
  13. Fluency
    Reading connected pieces of text

    Comprehension is dependent on fluency.
  14. Automatic Reading (Automaticity)
    Involves the development of strong orthographic representations, which allows fast and accurate identification of whole words made up of specific letter patterns
  15. Prosody
    Concerns versification of text and involves such matters as which syllable of a word is accented
  16. Orthography
    Standardized system for using a particular writing system (script) to write a particular language
  17. Four Types of English Orthography
    • Regular, for reading and spelling (cat, print,)
    • Regular, for reading but not for spelling (float - flote)
    • Rule-based (canning - doubling rule, faking - drop "e" rule)
    • Irregular (beauty)
  18. Cueing Methods
    • Orthographic Awarenesss
    • Syntactic Cueing
    • Semantic Cueing
  19. Orthographic Awarenesss
    Ability to perceive and recall letter strings and word forms, as well as the retrieval of letters and words

    Sight word vocabulary for both reading and spelling depends on this skill.
  20. Syntactic Cueing
    Involves evaluating a word for its part of speech and its place in the sentence

    E.G. The reader determines if it is a noun, verb, adjective, etc.
  21. Semantic Cueing
    Requires determining the meaning of the word, phrase, or sentence
  22. Syntax
    Referes to the rules or patterened relationships that correctly create phrases and sentences from words
  23. Root Word
    Primary base of a word
  24. Prefix
    The affix (a morpheme that attaches to the base of a word) that is places at the start of a root word but can't make a word on its own

    E.G. Pre-, re-
  25. Suffix
    Follows the root world to which it attaches and appears at the end of the word it attaches and appears at the end of the word

    E.G. -S, -es, -ed, -ly, and -tion
  26. Comprehension
    Occurs when readers are able to make predictions, select main ideas, and establish significant and supporting details of the story
  27. Bloom's Taxonomy
    • Knowledge
    • Comprehension
    • Application
    • Analysis
    • Synthesis
    • Evaluation

    Kissing Can Alter Accepting Someone Else
  28. Explain the difference between higher cognitive questions and lower cognitive questions.
    Higher cognitive questions are also called open-ended, interpretive, evaluative, and ingerential questions. Lower cognitive questions are those that aske the student merely to recall verbatim or literally the material previously read or taught by the teacher. Application vs. recall.
  29. Allegory
    A story in verse or prose with characters that represent virtues and vices

    E.G. The Pilgrim's Progress
  30. Ballad
    An in medias res story that is told or sung--usually in verse and accompanied by music

    E.G. "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner"
  31. Drama
    Plays (comedy, modern, or tragedy) that are typically performed in five acts

    E.G. A Shakespearean Play
  32. Epic
    A long poem usually of book length that reflects values inherent in the generative society

    E.G. The Odyssey
  33. Epistle
    A letter that is not always originally intended for public distribution, but due to the fame of the sender and/or recipient, one that becomes public domain

    E.G. Think about Paul's letters
  34. Fable
    A terse take offering up a moral or exemplum

    E.G. Think Asop
  35. Legend
    A traditional narrative or collection of related narratives, popularly regarded as historically factual but actually a mixture of fact and fiction
  36. Myth
    Stories that are more or less universally shared within a culture to explain its history and traditions
  37. Novel
    The longest form of fictional prose containing a variety of characterizations, settings, local color, and regionalism
  38. Poem
    The only requirement for a poem is rhythm
  39. Romance
    A highly imaginitive take set in a fantastical realm that deals with conflicts between heores, villians, and/or monsters
  40. Short Story
    A concise narrative that has less background than anovel, but that typically includes many of the same plot developments and techniques
  41. Expository Writing
    A form of writing where the only purpose is to inform
  42. Narration
    Discourse arranged chronologically
  43. Descriptive Writing
    Making an experience available through one of the five senses (seeing, smelling, hearing, feeling, and tasting)
  44. Style
    The artful adaptation of language to meet various purposes
  45. Tone
    The attitude an author takes toward his or her subject
  46. Point-of-View
    The perspective of text
  47. Simple Sentence
    One independent clause (subject and predicate)
  48. Subject
    The do-er of an action or the element that is being joined
  49. Predicate
    Made up of the verb and any other adverbs, adjectives, pronouns, or clauses that describe the action of the sentence
  50. Compound Sentence
    Made up of two independent clauses that are joined by a conjunction, a correlative conjunction, or a semi-colon
  51. Complex Sentence
    Made up of one independent clause and at lease one dependent clause
  52. Present Tense
    Currently happening (is playing)
  53. Past Tense
    Occurred in past time (learned to play)
  54. Future Tense
    Expresses action or a condition of future time (will probably earn)
  55. Present Perfect Tense
    Used to express action or a condition that started in the past and is continuted or completed in the present (has practiced the piano)
  56. Past Perfect Tense
    Expresses action or a condition that occurred as a precendent to some othe past action or condition (has considered playing)
  57. Future Perfect Tense
    Expresses action that started in the past or the present and will conclude at some time in the future (will have been)
  58. Active Voice
    When the subject of the verb is the doer of the action
  59. Passive Voice
    When the subject of the verb is the receiver of the action

    • Look for:
    • -A form of the verb "to be"
    • -A past participle form of the main verb
    • -Subject in an object position
    • -By statement between the verb phrase and the object
    • -Doer not even present
  60. Stages of a Writer
    • Role Play
    • Emergent
    • Developing
    • Beginning
    • Expanding

    Ruth Eats Dried Bacon Every day.
  61. Print Awareness
    Realization that writing is created with insturments such as pens, pencils, crayons, and markers
  62. Closed Syllables
    A closed syllable has one and only one vowel, and it ends in a consonant

    Examples include in, ask, truck, sock, stretch, twelfth, and on.
  63. Open Syllables
    An open syllable has one and only one vowel, and that vowel occurs at the end of the syllable

    Examples include no, she, I, a, and spry.
  64. Silent-E Syllables
    A silent-e syllable ends in an e, has one and only one consonant before that e, and has one and only one vowel before that consonant.

    Examples include ate, ice, tune, slope, strobe, and these
  65. Vowel Combination Syllables
    A vowel combination syllable has a cluster of two or three vowels or a vowel-consonant unit with a sound or sounds particular to that unit

    Examples include rain, day, see, veil, pie, piece, noise, toy, cue, and true
  66. Vowel-R Syllables
    A vowel-r syllable is one which includes one and only one vowel followed by an r, or one vowel followed by an r which is followed by a silent e, or a vowel combination followed by an r

    Examples include car,or, care, ire, air, and deer
  67. Consonant-L-E Syllables
    In these syllables, a consonant is followed by le. The vowel sound in these syllables is the schwa sound that occurs before the l

    Examples include -ble, -cle, -dle, -fle, and -gle
  68. Traditional Approach
    Adheres strictly to a phonics-based approach to spelling
  69. Whole Language Approach
    Supports the ideas that the student learns to spell by remembering what the whole word looks like rather than by remembering how it sounds
  70. Developmental Approach
    Students go through several states of development from invented spelling to conventional spelling
  71. Structured Language Approach
    Involves an in-depth focus on letter/sound relationships and progresses through letters, phonemes, blended syllables, to whole words
  72. Teaching phonics and spelling could take four approaches:

    • Traditional Approach
    • Whole Language Approach
    • Developmental Approach
    • Structured Language Approach
  73. Theories of language aquistition could take four approaches:

    • Learning Approach
    • Linguistic Approach
    • Cognitive Approach
    • Sociocognitive Approach
  74. Learning Approach
    A language acquisition theory that assumed that language development evolved from learning the rules of language structures and applying them through imitation and reinforcement
  75. Linguistic Approach
    A language acquisition theory that states that language ability is innate and develops through natural human maturation as environmental stiumli trigger the acquisition of syntactical structures appropriate to each exposure level
  76. Cognitive Approach
    A language acquisition theory thatstates that children acquire knowledge of linguistic structures after they have acquired the cognitive structures necessary to process language
  77. Sociocognitive Approach
    A language acquisition theory thatstates that the different aspects of linguistic, cognitive, and social knowledge are interactive elements of total human development
  78. The assessment of phonemic awareness skills is almost always an ____________ ____________ task.
    Individual Oral
  79. Any phonics assessment needs to combine the ___________ that make up words with the __________ that are used to represent those sounds.
    Sounds and Letters
  80. First- and second-grade children should read:
    30 Correct WPM
  81. Third-grade children should read:
    40 Correct WPM
  82. Mid-third-grade children should read:
    60 Correct WPM
  83. Fourth-grade and higher children should read:
    80 Correct WPM
Card Set
PRAXIS II Elementary Education 5015 - Reading and Language Arts Curriculum
Study cards for the PRAXIS II Elementary Education 5015 Exam (Reading and Language Arts Curriculum)