1. general traits of seeds
    • 1.) Mature ovule
    • 2.) inside fruit
    • 3) double fertilization (angiosperm)
  2. (general traits of seeds) double fertilization
    -2 fertilizations inside ovule

    • a) sperm and egg= zygote and embryo
    • b) sperm + 2 polar nuclei= endosperm nuclei
  3. (general traits of seeds) Location of seeds?
    -inside fruit
  4. seed structure
    • 1.) seed coat
    • 2.) embryo
    • 3.) food reserves
  5. (seed structure) Seed coat
    • a) outside of a seed
    • b) protects seed (some are hard and thick)
    • c) Hilium
    • d) Micropyle
  6. (seed coat) Hilium
    "bell button"

    -scar where seed attached to ovary
  7. (seed coat) Micropyle
    -hard to see

    a) opening for pollen tube to enter
  8. Embryo
    • a) new plant
    • b) formed by fertilization of egg and sperm
    • c) one or 2 cotyledons
    • d) 4 parts of embryo
    • *radicle
    • *hypocotyl
    • *epicotyl
    • *plumule
  9. (parts of embryo) Radicle
    -root in an embryo

    -1st part of embryo to grow
  10. (parts of embryo) Hypocotyl
    "below cotyledon"

    a) stem below the cotyledon
  11. (parts of embryo) Epicotyl
    "above the cotyledon"

    a) stem above the cotyledon
  12. (parts of embryo) Plumule
    a) stem and leaves above cotyledons or everything above the cotyledons
  13. Food reserves
    a) food stored in seed for new plant

    • b) 2 forms
    • *cotyledons and
    • *endosperm

    • c) some plants have both ^
    • ex) corn has starch from cotyledon and oil from endosperm
  14. (2 forms of food reserves) Cotyledons
    beans and peas
  15. (2 forms of food reserves) Endosperm
    coconut oil and "meat"
  16. examples of seeds we consume- Directly
    rice, beans, peas
  17. examples of seeds we consume- indirectly
    wheat flour, corn starch, oils
  18. 2 groups of seeds in angiosperms
    Dicot seeds and monocot seeds
  19. (groups of seeds) Dicot seeds
    -short for dicotyledons

    -2 cotyledons or seed leaves

    ex) bean, pea, soybean
  20. (group of seed) Monocot seeds
    -short of monocotyledon

    - one cotyledon

    -ex) corn, rice, wheat
  21. Seed growth
    a) Imbibition

    b) Germination

    c) Viability

    d) Dormancy
  22. (seed growth) Imbibition
    "to drink"

    • a) seed soak up water and swells
    • b) enzymes start digesting
    • c) doesnt mean seed will grow
  23. (seed growth) Germination
    • a) embryo
    • b) look for radicle
    • c) effected by:
    • * water
    • *temperature
    • * oxygen
    • *light (small seeds)
  24. (seed growth) Viability
    • a) see if the embryo is alive
    • b) doesnt mean it will grow

    *used tetracolium chloride
  25. (seed growth) Dormancy
    • a) seed wont grow
    • b) need to deal with

    • ex) hard seed coat:impermeable
    • -cold/moist period for native plants
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