Chemical Principles

  1. What is metter
    • mater: has mass and takes up space.
    • Composed of one or mor elements
  2. Element
    substance that can't be decomposed into substances with different properties.
  3. Electron
    negatively charged particles
  4. Protons
    positively charged particles
  5. Neutrons
    uncharged particles (neutrol)
  6. Where do protons and electrons reside?
    • protons and neutrons reside in the nucleus of an atom.
    • Electrons: move around the nucleus
  7. What is electron's number is equal to?
    Number of electrons = th enumber of protons, so there is not net charge on the atom.
  8. What is atomic number?
    Atomic number - the number of protons.8O
  9. Mass number(atomic weight)?
    the number of protons + the number of neutrons. 16O
  10. Isotope
    an atom of an element having more or fewer neutrons than typical
  11. How to colculate the number of neutrons?
    Atomic weight - the atomic number = number of neutrons
  12. What is a molecule?
    a combination of two or more atoms
  13. Compound
    a compination of two or more elements
  14. Molecular compound
    te smallest unit of a compound that retains all the properties of that compound ex. H2O
  15. Organic compound
    contains Carbon
  16. Mixture
    two or more elements (or compounds) mixing without any chemical bonding.
  17. How many electrons in each shell?
    Maximum of 2 electrons in the first shell, 8 in the 2nd, 8 in the third.
  18. Cation
    Atoms whose outer shell is less than half filled will lose electrons and from positively charged ions, called cations.
  19. Anions
    netatively charged ions, that gained electrons becuase outer most shell was more than half filled.
  20. Chemical bond
    is a union between the electrons of different atoms
  21. Ionic bonds
    are attractions between ions of opposite charge. Ona atom loses electrons and another gains electrons.
  22. Ions
    are atoms that gained or lost electrons and are therefore charged.
  23. Covalent bonds
    When two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons, without the electrons leaving their orbitals.
  24. Non polar covalent bonds
    electrons are shared equally between the atoms
  25. Polar covalent bonds
    electrons are not shared equally among the atoms, resulting in slight opposite charges on portions of the molecule, but ther is no net charge. (H2O)
  26. Hydrogen Bond
    Common in whater. Occures when a hydrogen atom that is already part ot a polar covalent bond interacts weakly with a highly electronegative atom (like O or N).
  27. Endergonic reactions
    absorb more energy that the release. Or chemical reactions that requires energy.
  28. Exergonic reactions
    When bond break they release energy.
  29. Synthesis reactions
    • (forming of new bonds)Occures when atoms, ions ore molecules combine to form new, larger molecules.
    • (anabolism, dehydration)
  30. Anabolism
    is the synthesis molecules in a cell
  31. Condensation (dehydration) reaction
    where H+ is removed from one molecule, OH- is removed from another, and he two molecules join --leaving H2O as a by-product. (monomer to polymers)
  32. Decompasitions reactions
    • (breaking bonds) occure when a molecule is split into smaller molecules, ions, or atoms
    • (catabolism, hydrolysis)
  33. Catabolic reactions
    are the decompasition reactins in a cell - catabolism
  34. Hydrolysis
    where a molecule is split in two, while simultaneously, H ion and OH ions(from water) become attached to the newly exposed sites on the molecule. (polymer to monomers)
  35. Exchange reactions
    • part synthesis and part decompasition.
    • Heat- synthesize
    • Water - break bonds
  36. Examples of inorganic molecules?
    lack carbon: H2O, CO2, Salts, acids, bases.
  37. Polar molecules
    hydrophilic - love water
  38. Non-polar molecules
  39. Acid
    an acid is a substance that dissociates, giving up one or morew H ions. The more H ions, the more acidic, lower pH 7>
  40. Base
    substance that dissociates, giving up one or more OH ions. Makins solution more basic(less asidic), higher pH 7<
  41. Salts
    substance that dissociate into cations and anions, neighter of which are H ion or OH ions.
  42. At what pH organisms grow best?
    pH 6.5-8.5
  43. What are organic compounds?
    • Contain C and H
    • Held together by covalent bonds
    • Carbon can binds up to 4 other atoms covalently.
    • Carbon atoms binds into cahins and rings.
  44. What is the chain of carbon atoms is called?
    carbon skeleton/backbone
  45. What is a functional group of organic compound?
    • cluster of atoms that also bond to a crbon backbone.
    • resposible for for most of the chemical properties of a paritcular organic compound.
  46. What are macromolecules?
    small organic molecules combined into large. macromolecules are polymers cosisting of many small repeating molecules.
  47. Monomers
    the smaller molecules
  48. Polymers
    monomers join by dehydration synthesis reactions form polymers.
  49. How polymers are broke apart?
    by hydrolysis reactions to form monomers.
  50. What are cabrohydrates?
    simple sugars or strings of simple sugars linked together. For structures and energy.
  51. 4 types of carbohydrates?
    • Monosaccharides
    • Disaccharides
    • Oligosaccharides
    • Polysacharides
  52. Monosaccharides
    • 3-7 Carbon atoms
    • 5-6 Cabron long, arranged into a ring
    • sweet, dissolve in water
  53. Disaccharides
    • 2 monosach. joined by join by dehydration
    • broken down by hydrolysis (ex. lactose, sucrose, maltose)
  54. Oligosaccharides
    2-20 monosaccharides
  55. Polysacharides
    10-100 monosach, straight or brachned chains
  56. 3 types of polysaccharides?
    • Starch
    • Glycogen, cellulose
    • are polymers of glucose that are covalently bonded toghether differently.
  57. Glycogen
    sugar storage form used in animals, mostly found in the liver and skeletol muslce
  58. Starch
    sugar storage form used in plants
  59. Cellulose
    structural carbohydrate used in plants
  60. What is chitin
    a polyer of two sugars repeating many times
  61. Lipids
    • are the primary component of cell membranes
    • Cosist of C, H, O
    • Nonpolar and insoluble in water
  62. Fatty acids
    Lipids that have backbones of up to 36 carbons, a carboxyl group (COOH) at one end, and H atoms an nearly all other locations.
  63. Saturated fatty acids
    contain max, possible nomber of H; all C-C bonds are single
  64. Unsaturated fatty acids
    one or more dobule bonds - cause kinks in chain
  65. Triglycerides
    • 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids
    • formed by dehydration.
    • The most common diatery lipid -richest energy sourse, stored as adipose
  66. Complex lipids
    • contain C, H, O as well as P, N or S
    • 1. Phospholipids
    • 2. Waxes
  67. Phospholipids
    Complex lipid :1 glycerol + 2 fatty acids + phosphate group (in cell membrane)
  68. Waxes
    complex lipid - tightly packed molecules that are firm and repel water.
  69. Steroids
    • lipids - 4 interconected carbon rings
    • if attached to -OH= sterol - cholesterol in plasma membrane
  70. Proteins
    cosist of monomer subunits called amino acids
  71. Cysteine
    keep protein structures togehter.
  72. Amino acids
    organic compound ame up of an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom and an "R' group, all attached to a central carbon atom.
  73. Primary structure of protien
    Proteins form when individual amino acids are covalently linked toghether forming "peptied bonds". (-N-C-C-N-C-C-N-) this is called polypeptide chain and forms the primary structure of the protein.

    A specific protein will have a specific sequence of amino acids which is called protein's "primary strucutre"
  74. Secondary strucutre of protein
    • localized folding of chain, just some part, depend totaly on sequence.
    • Coiled chains, (alpha helix) and beta sheets.
  75. Tertiary strucutre a 3-D structure of protein.
    hydrophobic interactions - the overall strcuture arrangment of the entire protein.
  76. Quaternary strucutre
    two or more polypeptied chains operate as a single functional unite. Bonds are the smae as in tertiary strucutres.
  77. Shape of proteins
    • Globular - most ex. hemoglobin
    • Fibrouse - colagen.
  78. Conjugated protein
    • other things bonded to proteins such as carbs, lipids.
    • lipoproteins, glycoproteins (oligosaccharides boned to certain proteins)
  79. Denatured prtoeins
    when hydrogen bonds are broken and the 3-D shapes distructes.
  80. DNA and RNA
    cosist of monomer subunits called nucleotides
  81. Necleotides
    made up of pentose sugar (ribose), phospate group, and nitrogne base (purine or pyrimidine)
  82. DNA nucleotides
    • Thymine (pyramidine)
    • Adenine (purine)
    • Cytosine ( pyrimidine)
    • Guanine (purine)
    • A hidrogne bonds with T
    • G bonds with C
  83. RNA culeotides
    • Uracil
    • Adenine
    • Cytosine
    • Guanine
    • AU
    • GC
  84. ATP
    • primary energy sourse for cellular activity
    • base - Adenine
    • sugar - ribose
    • mande ADP + H2O (dehydration) = ATP
    • Broken down by hydrolysis.
Card Set
Chemical Principles
Chater 2 for Quiz 2