What is metter
- mater: has mass and takes up space.
- Composed of one or mor elements
substance that can't be decomposed into substances with different properties.
negatively charged particles
positively charged particles
uncharged particles (neutrol)
Where do protons and electrons reside?
- protons and neutrons reside in the nucleus of an atom.
- Electrons: move around the nucleus
What is electron's number is equal to?
Number of electrons = th enumber of protons, so there is not net charge on the atom.
What is atomic number?
Atomic number - the number of protons.8O
Mass number(atomic weight)?
the number of protons + the number of neutrons. 16O
an atom of an element having more or fewer neutrons than typical
How to colculate the number of neutrons?
Atomic weight - the atomic number = number of neutrons
What is a molecule?
a combination of two or more atoms
a compination of two or more elements
te smallest unit of a compound that retains all the properties of that compound ex. H2O
two or more elements (or compounds) mixing without any chemical bonding.
How many electrons in each shell?
Maximum of 2 electrons in the first shell, 8 in the 2nd, 8 in the third.
Atoms whose outer shell is less than half filled will lose electrons and from positively charged ions, called cations.
netatively charged ions, that gained electrons becuase outer most shell was more than half filled.
is a union between the electrons of different atoms
are attractions between ions of opposite charge. Ona atom loses electrons and another gains electrons.
are atoms that gained or lost electrons and are therefore charged.
When two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons, without the electrons leaving their orbitals.
Non polar covalent bonds
electrons are shared equally between the atoms
Polar covalent bonds
electrons are not shared equally among the atoms, resulting in slight opposite charges on portions of the molecule, but ther is no net charge. (H2O)
Common in whater. Occures when a hydrogen atom that is already part ot a polar covalent bond interacts weakly with a highly electronegative atom (like O or N).
absorb more energy that the release. Or chemical reactions that requires energy.
When bond break they release energy.
- (forming of new bonds)Occures when atoms, ions ore molecules combine to form new, larger molecules.
- (anabolism, dehydration)
is the synthesis molecules in a cell
Condensation (dehydration) reaction
where H+ is removed from one molecule, OH- is removed from another, and he two molecules join --leaving H2O as a by-product. (monomer to polymers)
- (breaking bonds) occure when a molecule is split into smaller molecules, ions, or atoms
- (catabolism, hydrolysis)
are the decompasition reactins in a cell - catabolism
where a molecule is split in two, while simultaneously, H ion and OH ions(from water) become attached to the newly exposed sites on the molecule. (polymer to monomers)
- part synthesis and part decompasition.
- Heat- synthesize
- Water - break bonds
Examples of inorganic molecules?
lack carbon: H2O, CO2, Salts, acids, bases.
hydrophilic - love water
an acid is a substance that dissociates, giving up one or morew H ions. The more H ions, the more acidic, lower pH 7>
substance that dissociates, giving up one or more OH ions. Makins solution more basic(less asidic), higher pH 7<
substance that dissociate into cations and anions, neighter of which are H ion or OH ions.
At what pH organisms grow best?
What are organic compounds?
- Contain C and H
- Held together by covalent bonds
- Carbon can binds up to 4 other atoms covalently.
- Carbon atoms binds into cahins and rings.
What is the chain of carbon atoms is called?
What is a functional group of organic compound?
- cluster of atoms that also bond to a crbon backbone.
- resposible for for most of the chemical properties of a paritcular organic compound.
What are macromolecules?
small organic molecules combined into large. macromolecules are polymers cosisting of many small repeating molecules.
the smaller molecules
monomers join by dehydration synthesis reactions form polymers.
How polymers are broke apart?
by hydrolysis reactions to form monomers.
What are cabrohydrates?
simple sugars or strings of simple sugars linked together. For structures and energy.
4 types of carbohydrates?
- 3-7 Carbon atoms
- 5-6 Cabron long, arranged into a ring
- sweet, dissolve in water
- 2 monosach. joined by join by dehydration
- broken down by hydrolysis (ex. lactose, sucrose, maltose)
10-100 monosach, straight or brachned chains
3 types of polysaccharides?
- Glycogen, cellulose
- are polymers of glucose that are covalently bonded toghether differently.
sugar storage form used in animals, mostly found in the liver and skeletol muslce
sugar storage form used in plants
structural carbohydrate used in plants
What is chitin
a polyer of two sugars repeating many times
- are the primary component of cell membranes
- Cosist of C, H, O
- Nonpolar and insoluble in water
Lipids that have backbones of up to 36 carbons, a carboxyl group (COOH) at one end, and H atoms an nearly all other locations.
Saturated fatty acids
contain max, possible nomber of H; all C-C bonds are single
Unsaturated fatty acids
one or more dobule bonds - cause kinks in chain
- 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids
- formed by dehydration.
- The most common diatery lipid -richest energy sourse, stored as adipose
- contain C, H, O as well as P, N or S
- 1. Phospholipids
- 2. Waxes
Complex lipid :1 glycerol + 2 fatty acids + phosphate group (in cell membrane)
complex lipid - tightly packed molecules that are firm and repel water.
- lipids - 4 interconected carbon rings
- if attached to -OH= sterol - cholesterol in plasma membrane
cosist of monomer subunits called amino acids
keep protein structures togehter.
organic compound ame up of an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom and an "R' group, all attached to a central carbon atom.
Primary structure of protien
Proteins form when individual amino acids are covalently linked toghether forming "peptied bonds". (-N-C-C-N-C-C-N-) this is called polypeptide chain and forms the primary structure of the protein.
A specific protein will have a specific sequence of amino acids which is called protein's "primary strucutre"
Secondary strucutre of protein
- localized folding of chain, just some part, depend totaly on sequence.
- Coiled chains, (alpha helix) and beta sheets.
Tertiary strucutre a 3-D structure of protein.
hydrophobic interactions - the overall strcuture arrangment of the entire protein.
two or more polypeptied chains operate as a single functional unite. Bonds are the smae as in tertiary strucutres.
Shape of proteins
- Globular - most ex. hemoglobin
- Fibrouse - colagen.
- other things bonded to proteins such as carbs, lipids.
- lipoproteins, glycoproteins (oligosaccharides boned to certain proteins)
when hydrogen bonds are broken and the 3-D shapes distructes.
DNA and RNA
cosist of monomer subunits called nucleotides
made up of pentose sugar (ribose), phospate group, and nitrogne base (purine or pyrimidine)
- Thymine (pyramidine)
- Adenine (purine)
- Cytosine ( pyrimidine)
- Guanine (purine)
- A hidrogne bonds with T
- G bonds with C
- primary energy sourse for cellular activity
- base - Adenine
- sugar - ribose
- mande ADP + H2O (dehydration) = ATP
- Broken down by hydrolysis.