1. What agent is almost always the cause of Phaeohyphomycosis, a fungus that causes granulomatous, pigmented lesions in the cerebellum?
    Cladophilalophora bantiana
  2. What is the cause behind polioencephalomalacia in ruminants?
    Thiamine deficiency
  3. What are some possible reasons for thiamine deficiency in horses? 2
    • Bracken Fern
    • Horsetail poisoning
  4. What type of lesions are seen in the gray matter in thiamine deficiency? 2
    • Laminar necrosis in linear pattern
    • Loss of neurons and gitter cells
  5. What type of diets have been shown to cause polioencephalomalacia in ruminants?
    High sulfur diets
  6. In what animals is Swayback (copper deficiency) seen? 2
    • Sheep
    • Goats
  7. In what animals is Vitamin E deficiency seen, frequent when corn and soybean meal diets are grown on selenium deficient soil?
  8. What type of lesions are associated with Vitamin E deficiency?
    Encephalomalacia (lesions in cerebellum of necrosis and hemorrhage)
  9. What vitamin deficiency results in inadequate resorption of endosteal bone or atrophy of optic nerve?
    Vitamin A deficiency
  10. What plan poison is observed in horses in California and causes nigropallidal malacia?
    Yellow Star Thistle
  11. In acute cases of lead poisoning, where is it stored? Chronic?
    • Acute - liver and kidneys
    • Chronic - hone
  12. What toxicity causes an acute paralytic syndrome in pigs and dogs to have sitting posture due to necrosis of gray matter of the spinal cord?
    Selenium toxicity
  13. What animals are most often affected by salt poisoning? 2
    • Swine
    • Sheep
  14. What is considered to be "pathognomonic" for salt poisoning in swine?
    Relative pure population of eosinophils in combination with laminar necrosis of the cerebral cortex
  15. What type of malacia did Fusarium moniliforme (toxin = fumonsin B1) cause in horses?
  16. What is sudden loss of consciousness and reflex activity following a sudden, non-fatal blow to the head?
  17. What is the result of sudden movement of the brain opposite to the point of impact?
    Counter-coup contusion
  18. What is the result of injury to the brain located on the impact side?
    Coup contusion
  19. What type of intervertebral disc disease is usually in early age, has early degenerative change and multiple discs involved?
    Type 1
  20. What type of intervertebral disc disease involves older dogs, and usually just involves 1 disc?
    Type II
  21. What is the pathology behind equine wobbles?
    Relaxation of the intervertebral ligaments resulting in increased mobility of the articulations
  22. What is a degenerative lesion of the choroid plexus that most often occurs in old horses and mostly found in the lateral ventricles?
  23. What is the most common tumor found in the nervous system of dogs and cats?
  24. What nervous system tumor is well circumscribed and encapsulated, and is characterized by whorls and solid cords of spindle-shaped cells of uniform size and shape?
  25. What tumor is most frequently found in brachycephalic breeds and is the most common of the glial neoplasms?
  26. What tumor is usually a soft-like cyst, being grayish and well-demarcated (densely cellular with almost no stroma)?
  27. What tumor has evidence to suggest that it arises from the undifferentiated cells found in neonatal life beneath the cerebellar pia matter?
  28. What tumor is derived from ependymal cells that normally line the ventricles and spinal canal (generally large intraventricular masses, well demarcated, gray and fleshy)?
  29. From what areas of the body does local invasion of secondary neoplasms most often occur?
    Sinuses and nasal mucosa
  30. Where does metastasis of secondary neoplasms have a predilection for in the brain?
    Junction of gray and white matter
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