OT Final

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  1. Outline of Lamentations
    • Ch 1,2,4 22 verse acrostic
    • Ch 3 66 verse acrostic
    • Ch 5 22 verses but not acrostic
  2. Cyrus Cylinder
    Akkadian written cylinder listing cyrus' accomplishments and letting jews return to homeland and start rebuilding temple
  3. Elephantine Papyri
    letters written (Aramaic) by Jews in egypt not wanting to return intended for high priest in jerusalem. Sig because they refer to the governor as Bagoas but the letters were written in time of Artaxeres II thinking Nehemiah was governor. Pushes date of Nehemiah being governor during the reign of Artaxeres I
  4. Theological Themes-Lamentations
    • God is the real force behind destruction
    • sense of future hope
    • fragmentation of divine-human relationship
  5. Lamentations Communicates Judgment
    God is force behind destruction
  6. Lamentations Communicates Hope
    Ch 3, hope, begging God to restore the broken relationship sin has caused
  7. Dates of Nehemiah's Mission
    445 BC either Artaxeres I or II
  8. Dates of Ezra's Mission
    • Artaxeres I, Ezra 1-6 (539-515
    • BC), Ezra’s return to Judah (458 BC)
  9. Cyrus Edict/Decree
    let jews return to homeland because he believed happy jews wouldn't revolt
  10. Sources of Ezra-Nehemiah
    memoirs of Ezra/Nehemiah
  11. Nine OT eras
    • I. The Primeval
    • History (Gen. 1-11)
    • Time: ??? to ca. 2000B.C
    • II. The Patriarchal Period (Gen. 12-50)
    • ca. 2000-1750B.C
    • III. The Exodus and Wilderness Wanderings (Exodus 1- Deut. 34)
    • 15th or 13th century B.C
    • IV. The Conquest (Joshua)
    • after the exodus/wilderness wanderings
    • V. The Period of the Judges (Judges, Ruth, 1 Samuel 1-12)
    • from conquest to 1050 B.C
    • VI. The United Monarchy (1 Samuel 13 -1 Kings 11; 1 Chronicles 1 - 2
    • Chronicles 9)
    • 1050-931 B.C
    • VII. The Divided Monarchy (1 Kings 12 -2 Kings 25; 2 Chronicles 10 -2
    • Chronicles 36)
    • North: 931-722B.C Conquered by Assyria
    • South: 931-586 B.C Conquered By Babylonians
    • VIII. The Exile (Lamentations; Daniel)
    • 586-539 B.C
    • IX. The Restoration and Diaspora (Ezra-Nehemiah; Esther)
    • Post 539 B.C
  12. Sheshbazzar
    governor after Zerubabbel in judah during the beginning of the rebuilding
  13. Zerubabbel
    descendant of David, (sparked messianic expectations) first governor of judah during rebuilding
  14. Significant Dates
    • 2000: abraham dynasty
    • 1000: david dynasty
    • 931: kingdom splits in two
    • 722: fall of north by assyria
    • 586: fall of temple, babylon conquers south
    • 539: end of exile
    • 515: second temple complete
  15. Theological Themes Ezra-Nehemiah
    • God uses people for restoration
    • Shifts from leaders to community (community rebuilds temple)
    • Expanding Holiness: from temple to city
  16. Walls
    • Ezra: literal wall separating God's people from Gentiles
    • Nehemiah: proverbial wall using the Law to separate God and his people
  17. History During Ezra-Nehemiah
    • 539 BC: Cyrus decree, end of exile, Jews allowed to return to the land 200 years after Cyrus decree, Greeks under Alexander the Great defeat Persia
    • 465 BC: Artaxeres reign begins
    • 458 BC: Ezra’s return to Judah and re-establishment of the law
  18. History of Esther
    takes place in Susa, capital of Persia, Ahasuerus is the ruler
  19. Plot of Esther
    Banquet, Queen doesn't want to appear so King tries to get a new king with a one night stand contest and Esther wins. Mordecai adopts Esther as his cousin, both are Jewish (King doesn't know). Haman is promoted to PM and Mordecai and him don't get along. Haman plans to execute all Jews but Esther has to get king to disallow this. King finds out Mordecai stops a plan to get the king killed, and asks Haman to plan a celebration for Mordecai. King finds out about plot to kill jews and he can't stop it so he lets jews be armed in battle and jews win and haman is hanged
  20. Irony of Esther
    • King asks haman what to do for man of honor and haman thinks it's him
    • Haman builds a place to hang Mordecai that he gets hung from
    • Decree intended to kill jews kills everyone else
  21. theological message of Esther
    God isn't mentioned, but it shows that God is still with the jews even in separation/exile
  22. Herodotus
    a historian that is noted for describing huge banquets like the one in the beginning of Esther
  23. Ahasuerus
    King during esther
  24. Purim
    anniversary of the revolt in esther that was created by esther
  25. Jeremiah as "weeping prophet"
    His story is sad and full of emotion, he sees the ultimate fate that Babylon will defeat Israel
  26. Pattern of Repentance in Jeremiah
    Jeremiah states to the people from God that they must repent their sins now before it's too late and this means surrender to Babylon
  27. Text critical problem of Jeremiah
    The septuagint and the Masoretic text are very different and the Septuagint is 1/3 shorter. We acecpt Masoretic because we know Jeremiah had more than one redaction
  28. Gedaliah
    Governor killed by Ishmael, Jeremiah supported Gedaliah. People fear the wrath will come on them but God tells them to stay there it'll be okay
  29. Ishmael
    Leader of insurgents, kills Gedaliah and causes Jews to flee in fear
  30. Important Jeremiah dates
    • 626: Babylon rebels against Assyria under Nabopolassar
    • 612: Nabopolassar captures Assyrian capital Nineveh, remaining Assyrians flee under Ashul-uballit
    • 609: Neco of Egypt marches to support Assyria against Babylon and passes through Meggido and is attacked by Josiah, Josiah dies, is replaced by Jehoahaz, Neco replaces Jehoahaz with Jehoakim, Neco arrives at Carchemish, is
    • defeated by Babylonians, Assyrians are completely destroyed

    • 597: Jehoakim tries to rebel against Babylon, before Babylonians get there he is replaced by son Jehoiachin; Jehoiachin, Ezekiel, and other elites are exiled, Nebuchadnezzar makes Zedekiah another one of Josiah’s sons king
    • 586: Zedekiah rebels, more people are exiled, Zedekiah is
    • imprisoned
  31. Covenant in Jeremiah's prophecy
    Prophet is a messenger of God but also a lawyer that is called in to confront the people.

    • Covenant: talks about blessings and curses, and prophets talk about how they are breaking previous covenants so
    • they will pay the consequences.
  32. Biblical Wisdom v. High IQ
    • IQ: Intelligence :: biblical: Wisdom
    • Biblical wisdom is how to live, more of a skill than knowledge
    • Just this isn't complete wisdom (knowing how to do/say the right thing at the right time) must fear the Lord
  33. Structure of Proverbs
    • 1-9: lectures on straight v crooked path, invitation to intimate relationship, choose between wisdom and folly
    • 10-31: deriving wisdom and letting it stand alone as truth, short aphorisms
  34. Proverbs to Daily Life
    all proverbs are true but not for all circumstances, must learn how to apply in the correct situation
  35. Lady Wisdom
    personfies the "wisdom" path to life by having an intimate relationship with God
  36. Lady Folly
    personifies the crooked path to life and shows it will ultimately lead in death
  37. Qohelet
    a wise man searching for the meaning of life who has failed at his attempt
  38. Frame Narrator of Ecclesiastes
    A man speaking to his son about the Qohelet, teaches his son to fear God, obey His commands, and be ready for Judgment
  39. Qohelet Final Decision
    • Life sucks then you die:
    • With death, there is nothing after life so it's pointless
    • With death, wisdom is meaningless due to injustice
    • With the inability to discern correct time, there is never a right time
  40. Second Narrator final decision
    Fear God and obey God but don't worry too much about the revelation because you probably won't achieve it?
  41. Jerome
    400 AD, leader of church and interpreter of Song of Songs that say it is purely an allegory for our relationship with God and you should read Song of Songs last or else it won't make sense
  42. Proper way of Song of Songs
    • They are love poems, but weren't interpreted as such until 19th century
    • Our ultimate marriage will be with Jesus, so this teaches us about that but also about marriage here
    • Marriage is a metaphor between Jesus and His church
    • Celebrates human sexuality within the context of marriage
  43. Reason Psalms are used for worship
    • They include a history of Israel
    • The Psalms themselves allude to being used for worship
    • They express nearly every human emotion so it is a ready made prayer book!
  44. 9 Principles of Psalm Interpretation
    • Read in Context
    • Identify the Genre
    • Meditate on the Parallelism (repeated=important!!)
    • Look at the imagery
    • Read in light of its title
    • How does it present Christ?
    • Mirror to your soul
    • God's will for your life
  45. Genres of Psalm
    • hymm
    • lament
    • thanksgiving
    • confidence
    • wisdom
    • remembrance
    • kingship
  46. Parallelism
    refers to echoing of a poetic line, B is more than A
  47. Imagery
    refers to seeing the images actually play out in your head
  48. Terseness
    less words than prose so it's more ambiguous, poetry is also much more emotional the prose
  49. Psalm Titles
    provides clues to the context of the psalms
  50. Theme of Daniel (1+7 illustration)
    • in spite of present difficulties, God is in control and will have victory
    • Daniel 1 Food: they ate the vegetables and not the nice food so they wouldn't get into trouble for not following the guidelines, and in return graduated at the top of their class and were good looking
    • Daniel 7 dream: Neb demands that Daniel tells them the significance of the dream but they don't know how so he goes around killing people but God finally reveals the dream to daniel and he is able to tell Neb
  51. Interpretation of Daniel 7
    • Four beasts come out of the sea
    • 1st beast: hybrid (israelites don't like hybrids) said to represent babylon
    • 2nd beast: bear, symbolizes oppression dominance and represents Medo-Persia
    • 3rd beast: winged leopard with 4 heads represents Greece (authority)
    • 4th beast: boastful horn, the antichrist, ROME
  52. Daniel 7 is apocalyptic
    God is not giving them words to go out and tell people (like a prophet) but rather people are receiving a vision and an angel must interpret for them
  53. What is Apocalyptic?
    predicts hurt to the enemies, message of hope for the faithful
  54. Daniel refuses rich food
    It would be a way of showing political allegiance to the king which he didn't want to do also he stopped eating during the time in order to focus on prayer
  55. Daniel and friends name change
    • Given new names that praise Babylonians and not God
    • Daniel-->Belteshazza
    • Azariah-->Abednego
    • Hananiah-->Shadrach
    • Mishael-->Meshach
  56. Neb intention of education
    • attempt to babylonianize
    • learned: learned divination, myths that praised false gods, because everything that lead to worship of false gods
  57. Genres of Daniel
    • Court Narrative: Daniel 1-6, living in a foreign court to show interactions between heroes of the story and court people purpose is to teach people how to act with oppressors
    • Apocalyptic Prophecy (7-12)
  58. Qualities of Apocalyptic Lit
    • 1. narrow eschatology: look beyond to end of time
    • 2. mediated revelation: angels help out
    • 3. Unusual Imagery
    • 4. Setting of Oppression:
  59. Languages of Daniel
    • Dan 1:1-2:4 → Hebrew
    • Dan 2:5-end of 7 → Aramaic
    • Dan 8-12 → Hebrew
  60. Nebopolassar
    king of Babylonian who brought it into power and rises up against Assyria in 626
  61. Neb
    son of Nebo, king after him
  62. Belshazzar
    writes on the wall and no one understands so daniel interprets and it says the kingdom will fall and then daniel is placed 3rd highest on the throne
  63. Jehoikam
    king of judah
  64. Dates for Daniel
    626: 13th year of King Josiah’s reign, Babylon under the leadership of Nabopolassar, 605: Nebuchadnezzar is able to assert his power on Judah, which is the opening of Daniel 1, Nabopolassar dies naturally, Nebuchadnezzar becomes king, Judah becomes a vassal, God allows him to take some of the young men and tokens from the temple of God 586: Zedekiah rebels, 3rd time Nebuchadnezzar has to bring his army to Jerusalem, feels as though he has to not just change kings but to also incorporate them into the empire (stage beyond , Zedekiah is defeated and all his sons are executed before him, then his eyes are plucked out) 539: Cyrus of Persia conquers the Babylonians, restoration begins to come with the end of exile, beginning of the rebuilding of the Temple under the Cyrus Decree
  65. History of Danny
    605 BC: Nebuchadnezzar II is making his presence known in Judah-even though Jehoakim has been placed on the throne in Judah by Neco (Pharaoh) b/c he has no choice pro-Egypt, he has no choice but to submit and ally with Babylon-In 605 BC Babylon reduces Judah to vassal status-587 BC: Nebuchadnezzar in response to a rebellion by Judah’s king Jehoakim, marches to Jerusalem and brings it under control -he exiles Ezekiel (a prophet) and other elites such as Daniel to Jerusalem-He replaces Jehoiachin w/ another son of Josiah, Zedekiah (before Neb got there, Jehoakin had already been replaced with his son Jehioachin)-typical ancient Near Eastern practice: -take their enemies idol to their own temple -in temple, Judah has no idol so they take the utensils and cups from the temple (the ark was long gone)other typical ancient near E. practice: -taking some of the sons of Israel, including some royals and nobles (young elite men) -attempting to Babylonianize the young men -so they’d either serve in Babylon or go back and rule over JudahEunuchs: in Babylonian and other near eastern courts servants were made eunuchs Dr. L thinks this may have happened to Daniel and his friends In keeping with the prophecy made by Isaiah that some would be made eunuchs
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OT Final
OT final spring 2012
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