health psych

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  1. what is alternative medicine?
    diverse medical and health care systems, practices and products
  2. what is complementarey medicine?
    CAM = alternative medicine + drugs
  3. what is acupunture?
    • inserting needles into specific points on the skin
    • stimulate endorphins
    • 47% relief from acupunture in study
  4. what is sham acupunture?
    • study done to see if made a difference where needle was placed.
    • 44% relief from sham
  5. what is biofeedback?
    • process of providing feedback information about the status of the biological systems
    • two approaches: healers and research
  6. who did a study on biofeedback on animals?
    neal e. miller
  7. what EMG biofeedback ?
    • reflects the activity of the skeletal muscles by measuring the electrical discharge in muscle fibers
    • attaching eletrodes
    • increase muscle tension- rehab
    • decrease muscle tension - stress management
  8. 1970's study done on who?
    what did they find?
    • incoming freshman who had high blood pressure
    • systolic bp went down
  9. what is thermal biofeedback?
    • used to help cope with stress and pain based on skin temp
    • -cold skin = stress and tension
    • -warm skin = calm and relax
  10. what is hypnotic induction?
    • placed into a hypnotic state
    • divided consciouness
    • answer questions
  11. dean ornish diet?
    • limit fat -10% of diet
    • vegetarian diet
    • not aimed at wt loss
    • beneficial for cardiovascular health
  12. what is mindfulness meditation?
    • relaxed
    • enhanced awareness of perceptions
    • control anxiety
    • manage chronic disease and pain conditions
  13. what is meditation?
    • breathing
    • repeating mantra
    • Benson - Harvard MD
  14. what is cognitive therapy?
    help the patient overcome difficulties by identifying and changing dysfunctional thinking, behavior, and emotional responses
  15. what is atherosclerosis?
    • formation of plaques and the resulting occurance of the arteries
    • may restrict blood flow to brain
  16. what is arteriosclerosis?
    • loss of elasticity of the arteries
    • cardiovascular system less capable of tolerating increases in cardiac blood volume
    • may restrict blood flow to brain
  17. what is a stroke?
    • damage to the brain resulting from lack of oxygen to the brain
    • death of neurons in the brain
    • blood clots may form
    • clots floating in the cardiovascular system
  18. what is a myocardial infarction?
    • medical term referring to heart attack
    • disrupt heart beat
    • signals : weakness, dizzy
    • cant repair - scar tissue formed
  19. what is systolic pressure?
    • 1st number to measure blood pressure
    • pressure generated by hearts contraction
  20. what is diastolic pressure?
    • second number to measure bp
    • pressure expereinced between contractions
    • reflecting elasticity between contractions
  21. what is essential hypertension?
    • chronic elevation of bp which is from both genetics and enviromental causes
    • related to aging
    • other factors: being black, wt, tobacco use, sodium intake, lack of exercise
  22. what are the behavioral factors of cardiovascular disease?
    • leading cause of death worldwide
    • inherent risk factors: aging, family history, gender, ethnic background
  23. what are psychological factors that can lead to cardiovascular disease?
    • education level
    • income
    • social support
    • stress,anxiety, depression
    • hostility and anger
    • *Friedman and Rosenman
  24. what are physiological conditions that lead to cardiovascular disease?
    • hypertension
    • serum cholestrol levels
    • glucose metabolism
    • inflammation
  25. what is LDL?
    positively related to cardiovasuclar disease
  26. what is HDL?
    • negatively related to cardiovascular disease
    • offers some protection against CVD
  27. what is the Jenkins Activity Survey?
    • 1000 adults/then college students
    • outcome : cynical hosiltity
    • written test
    • Dr. Jenkins and Dr. Glass (made it for students)
  28. what are the four scales of the Jenkins Activity Survey?
    • type a behavior
    • speed and impatience
    • job involvement - study habits
    • hard driving

    Designed to measure Type a behavior
  29. what is type A behavior?
    • *Friedman and Rosenman described people with hostile, competitive, concerned with #'s
    • Early years: predictor of heart disease
    • Later: no evidence
  30. who presented cynical hostlity?
    redford williams 1989
  31. what is cynical hostility?
    • especially harmful to cardiovascular health
    • people who mistrust others, think the worst of humanity and who interact with cynical hositity
    • appears as a factor on whether survival of heart attack can decrease life expectancy
  32. what is anger expression?
    • experience may not be a risk of anger
    • expression may be a risk of anger
  33. how to reduce the risk factors of cardiovascular disease?
    • prevent 1st heart attacks
    • be aware of bp, reduce hypertension
    • statin drugs
  34. what are benign cells?
    • altered cells
    • remain localized
    • harmless
  35. what are malignant cells?
    • spread
    • establish secondary colonies
    • dangerous
    • invade and destroy
    • may metastsize
  36. what is metastize?
    • spread through blood or lymph
    • spread to other body sites
  37. what the four groups of malignant cells?
    • carcinomas
    • sarcomas
    • leaukemias
    • lymphomas
  38. what is a carcinoma?
    • cancer of epithelial cells
    • line outer and inner surfaces of body
    • ex. skin, mucus membranes, stomach lining
  39. what is a sarcoma?
    • cancer on the connective tissue
    • ex. bone, muscle, cartilege
  40. what is a leukemia ?
    • cancer that orginates in the blood or blood-forming cells
    • ex. stem cells or bone marrow
  41. what accounts for the 95% of cancer cells?
    • carcinoma
    • leukemia
    • sarcomas
  42. what is lymphoma?
    • cancer of lymphatic system
    • rare type of cancer
  43. inherant risk factors of cancer?
    • ethnic background
    • aging
    • genetics
  44. how is smoking related to cancer?
    • lung cancer
    • leukemia
    • women who smoke throughout adolescents = breast cancer
    • largest risk for cancer mortality wordwide
  45. what is the synergistic effect?
    • two compounds combined = greater risk
    • smoking +
    • pollution
    • occupation
    • ethnic background
  46. What is the alameda county study?
    cross sectional (follow and see what disease comes) vs retrospective (look at past see what caused it)
  47. what is the western electric health study?
    • shelbelle (1981)
    • tested 2000+ men
    • ages 40-55
    • 379 depresssed
    • 2x as many depressed than not
  48. what is an oncologist
    branch of medicine that deals with tumors, including study of their development, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.
  49. what is alzheimers disease?
    • degenertative disease of the brain
    • plaques and tangles of nerve fibers in cerebral cortex and hippocampus
    • biggest risk factor: age
  50. what increases the risk of alzheimers disease?
    • genetics
    • head injury
    • type 2 diabetes
    • stroke
    • most common psychiatric problem : depression
  51. what does the pancreas produce?
    • islet cells
    • glucagon
    • insulin
  52. what is insulin?
    decreases level of glucose in the blood by causing tissue cell membranes to open so glucose can enter cells more freely
  53. what is type 1 diabetes?
    • insulin dependent
    • autoimmune
    • before age 30
  54. what is type 2 diabetes?
    • noninsulin
    • defect in cell prevent absorbtion of glucose
    • diet management
  55. what is asthma?
    chronic inflammatory disease that causes contriction of bronchial tubes preventing air to pass freely
  56. how is the hygiene hypotheis related to asthma?
    • is a result of to much cleaning in everyday modern society
    • other risk factors: sedentary and obesity
  57. what is HIV ?
    • symptoms that develop over a 10 year period
    • transmission: needles, sex, birth,
  58. what is AIDS?
    • disorder in which the immune system losses its effectiveness leaving body defenseless against bacteria and viruses
    • result of HIV
  59. what is HAART?
    tx of combination of pills that are taken on a strict schedule
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health psych
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