1. Pylorus
    Region of the stomach that connects to the duodenum
  2. The pyloric sphincter is...
    a strong ring of smooth muscle at the end of the pyloric canal which lets food pass from the stomach to the duodenum
  3. the Duodenum is...
    1st section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds is the

    Regulates the rate of emptying of the stomach via hormonal pathways
  4. ______ are found in the duodenum which function to produce a mucus-rich alkaline secretion containing bicarbonate that protects it from the acidity of chyme
    Brunner's glands
  5. _______ is an acidic (pH ~ 2) semifluid mass of partly digested food expelled by the stomach into the duodenum
  6. ________ is a cell in the stomach that releases pepsinogen and chymosin
    Gastric Chief Cell aka Peptic Cell
  7. ________ are stomach epithelium cells that secrete gastric acid and intrinsic factor in response to histamine
    Parietal cells aka Oxyntic cells
  8. The _____ is the middle section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds

    It lies between the _____ and the ______
    • Jejunum
    • Duodenum
    • Ileum
  9. In digestion, proteins are broken down in the _______ while carbohydrates and fats are broken down in the _______
    • stomach
    • duodenum
  10. Carbohydrates are broken down in the ______ by enzymes from the __________ into sugars
    • duodenum
    • pancreas and liver
  11. _________ is the part of the large intestine that is closest to the rectum and anus forming a loop.
    Sigmoid Colon

    Lies mostly in the pevis but sometimes can be in abdominal cavity
  12. What is the Cecum?
    • A pouch that is considered the beginning of the large intestine
    • It receives fecal material from the ileum & connects to the ascending colon
    • Connected to appendix
  13. Masticated food is called a _____
  14. Digestive System in a nutshell
    • In the Mouth
    • Teeth mechanically broken down in the mouth
    • Salivary glands release amylase (enzyme) which begins the break down of starch
    • Swallowed and moved down the esophagus by peristalsis

    • In the stomach
    • Gastric juices (hydrochloric acid, pepsin (enzyme), & etc) are released breaking down proteins
    • Stomach churns and combines the gastric juices and the food together into chime
    • Pyloric sphincter selectively allows small amounts of chyme through into the duodenum

    • In the duodenum
    • Bile are released by the liver and gallbladder
    • Pancreatic juices are released by pancreas
    • Break down of lipids begins
    • Further break down of proteins and starch also continues
    • Fats are emulsified by bile and it is broken down into fatty acids and glycerol
    • Protease (enzyme) breaks the peptide bonds in between the amino acids
    • Amylase further breaks down starch into monosaccharides

    • In the iluem and jejum
    • Most of the absorption takes place
    • Minerals and vitamins are absorbed by the villi which covers the small intestine (to increase the surface area of which absorption can take place) and by diffusion it is absorbed into the blood stream and lymphatic system.

    • In the large intestine
    • Further absorption (although limited) also takes place
    • Most of the water is absorbed here
    • Undigested and indigestible substance exits the body in a semi-solid form (feces) through the anus
  15. Bile aka Gall is...
    • Bitter-tasting, dark green to yellowish brown fluid
    • Produced in liver, stored in gallbladder
    • Upon eating is discharged into the duodenum
    • Aids digestion of lipids in small intestine
  16. The pancreas functions as an ______ gland and an organ in the ________ system.
    Endocrine (Gland)

    Digestive (Organ)
  17. Pancreatic juice is...
    • A liquid secreted by the pancreas
    • Alkaline in nature due to the high concentration of bicarbonate ions
    • Contains a variety of digestive enzymes
  18. Enzyme in stomach that begins the digestion of protein
  19. Intrinsic Factor aka Gastric Intrinsic Factor
    • A glycoprotein produced by the parietal cells of the stomach
    • Necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12 later on in the small intestine
  20. Secretin is
    • A hormone that controls the secretions into the duodenum
    • Produced in the S cells of the duodenum in the Crypts of Lieberkühn

    • Regulate pH duodenal contents via control of gastric acid secretion & buffering with bicarbonate
    • Triggers pancreas to release bicarbonate (neutralizes stomach acid entering duodenum)
    • Triggers releaes of pancreatic enzymes that further break down in small intestine

    Notable for being the first hormone to be identified
  21. Cholecystokinin (CCK)
    Previously called Pancreozymin (CCK-PZ)
    • A peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system
    • Responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein
    • Synthesized by I-cells in the mucosal epithelium of the small intestine
    • Causes the release of digestive enzymes & bile from pancreas and gallbladder into duodenum
  22. Finger like projections in the small intestine that absorb nutrients
    Villi & Microvill

    • They increase the small intestine's surface area
    • Each contains arterioles & lympathic vessels for absorption
  23. Absorption of water takes place in the ________
    Large Intestine aka Colon
Card Set