1. Cell
    the fundamental unit of structure and function
  2. prokaryotes
    single cells, circular chromosomes
  3. cell as unit of function
    capacity for growth and differentiation, self replication, evolution
  4. a capacity for change at two levels
    phenotype & genotype
  5. unicellular
    largely autonomous, capable of growth reproduction, and communicates and responds to its government
  6. multi-cellular
    has the ability for cells to adhere to one another and be able to communicate with each other
  7. multi-cellular behavior
    meets the needs of the organism as a whole
  8. chromoplasts
    contain pigments
  9. unique characteristics of plant cell
    cell wall, plastids, chloroplasts, central vacuole
  10. cell wall
    middle lamellae, plasmodesmata, parallel chain of cellulose associate to form microfibrils
  11. chloroplasts
    site of photosynthesis
  12. leucoplasts
    store starch
  13. central vacuole
    storage of proteins and inorganic ions, dispocal, pigments, protection, and cell enlargement
  14. process of cellular differentiation
    different cell types form specific tissues from organs, and organs form plant body.
  15. 3 basic cell types
    parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma
  16. parenchyma performs
    most important metabolic functions: photosynthesis: cholorenchyma & stores various organic products
  17. collenchyma cells
    alive at maturity
  18. sclerenchyma cells
    dead cells that have thick 2 degree walls, often lignified
  19. 2 major types of sclerenchyma cells
    fibers and sclereids
  20. 2 types of fibers
    extraxylary and xylary
  21. plant body's 3 type of organs
    roots, stems, and leaves
  22. different cell types form three tissue systems of plants
    dermal, ground, and vascular
  23. dermal tissue (epidermis)
    forms the fucntion of the plant covering parts of roots, stems, and leaves
  24. functions of dermal tissue
    depends on location of plant
  25. above ground
    cuticle that prevent plant from crying out by secreting waxy layer
  26. underground parts
    absorb water and nutrients
  27. on leaves and stems
    creates openings like stomata that regulates passages of gases and moisture into and out of the plant
  28. stomata
    gas exchange
  29. cortex
    has all three types of plant cells, parenchyma making up most of the ground tissue system
  30. vascular system
    carries water and nutrients in the plant
  31. xylem
    water and minerals conducting and contains trancheids and vessels
  32. phloem
    food conducting and sieve tubes and companion cells
  33. vessels
    have long tubular cells with grate like openings at the end
  34. trancheids
    tapered at the end
  35. roots
    anchor the plant in soil, absorb, minerals and water, and store food
  36. shoot systems
    vegetative and reproductive
  37. stem
    an alterntive system of nodes and internodes
  38. axillary bud
    at the angle formed by each leaf and stem, with potential to form a vegetative branch
  39. shoot apex
    contains terminal bud, area of active growth
  40. simple leaves
    have single, undivided blades
  41. compound leaves
    have several leaflets attached to the petiole
  42. plant's structure reflects
    interactions with environment of two time scales
  43. Example of desert plants
    leaves are reduced and the stem is the primary photosynthetic organ
  44. stolon
    above the ground
  45. rhizome
    below ground
  46. primary growth is a product of
    cel division, elongation, and differentation
  47. apical meristems:primary growth
    found at tips of roots and shoots and increases length of a plant
  48. lateral meristems: secondary growth
    add girth (width) by producing wood and bark
  49. advantages of asexual reproduction
    offspring of plant are genetically identical and can be made at any time
  50. disadvantages of asexual repdroduction
    diseases and insects are more likely to be transferred on asexual parts on seeds
  51. function of a flower
    produce gametes, mediate the union of male and mediate union of male and female gametes, site of seed set
  52. double fertilization
    • process by which two sperm fuse with with two cells
    • of the embryo sac
  53. endosperm
    forms food storage tissue within the seed
  54. female gamete
    egg cell
  55. male gamete
    sperm cell
  56. self (in breeding)
    male anf female gametes from the same plant from zygote
  57. cross (out) breeding
    male and female gametes from diff plants of zygote
  58. how do plant get pollen from one plant to another
    flowers are adapted to attract pollinators
  59. outbreeding advantages
    increases genetic variability, allows adaptation to changing conditions
  60. outbreeding disadvantages
    destroys well adapted genotypes, relies of effective cross pollination, seed dispersal and establishment
  61. genetics
    science of heredity
  62. heredity
    the handing down of certain traits from parents to their offspring
  63. until 19 century
    theory of inheritance was blending inheritence
  64. Traits have
    two forms that can breed true. one form must be hidden when plants with each trait are interbred
  65. dominant traits
  66. recessive traits
  67. dominance/ recessiveness
    when an individual has two unlike factors, the dominant factor will determine the phenotype, masking the other, recessive factore
  68. segregation
    factors segregate during gamete formation so that each gamete receives only one pair. when female and male gametes fuse (fertilization) the double number is retored
  69. principle of independent assortment
    each pair of alleles segregate independently during gamete formation
  70. gene
    organized unit of hereditary material
  71. chromosomal theory
    genes have specific locations on chromosomes, chromosomes underego segregation and independent assortment, and genes on the same chromosome are linked together and don't exhibit independent assortment
  72. crossing over
    recombinationof alleles between two homologous chromatids in meiosis
  73. genetics in the 21st century
    science of heredity and involves investigation of molecules, cells, organisms, and populations, utilizing diverse experimental approaches
  74. alleles
    alternate forms of the gene (P vs.p)
  75. phenotype
    physical appearance of a trait
  76. what describes the plants genotype
    letters indicating the two alleles in a plant, such as Pp or pp
  77. homozygous
    when both alleles are the same (PP or pp)
  78. heterozygous
    when is possess 1 copy of 2 different alleles for a locus
  79. DNA
    double stranded molecule consisting of two anti parallel polynucleotide chains
  80. genes occur
    in a linear order on chromosomes
  81. genetic variation
    sum of natural heritable variation observed between the genomes of individuals or populations of a given species
  82. genome
    comprises all the genetic material that an organism possesses
  83. polyploidy
    basic set of chromsomes (x) is represented more than 2 times per cell
  84. autopolyploidy
    polyploids whose chromosome sets are all derived from the same ancestral source
  85. allopolyploids
    contain chromosome sets from different, but related species
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