What is in a subjective note?
The writer puts a quotation from the patient that indicates where the patient is relative to the treatment goals and objectivies at he current session. For example, "I am doing a lot better around the house since getting all the new adaptive equipment."
What is in a objective note?
The data about what was done at the session, the progress toward the stated objectivies and goals, and the activitiies that were performed in the session.
What is in a assessment note?
The practitioner will note observations about how the patient is progressing, where they are in terms of the objectives and goals, and any interpretive information that the note writer finds pertinent.
What is in a plan note?
Documenting what the next steps in treatment will be.
What is a narrative note?
Is a type of progress note that does not have a specific structure the way a SOAP note does. The writer describes the patient's current condition, the contents of the session, the progress toward goals, and the anticipated next steps in a smoothly flowing text. Including some treatment settings and modalitieis.
Maslow's theory of the hierarchy of needs
He describes human needs as a pyramid with layers from bottom to top being- Physiological needs such as food,shelter, body functions, sleep, and sex. Safety- health, physical security, and sufficient resources for living. Love and Belonging - friendship, sexual relationships, and supportive family. Esteem - to achievement, self-confidence, and respect. Self- acturlization- the top of the pyramid, allows for creativity, spiritulity, moral philosophy, and acceptance of reality.
What is the Biomechanical approach?
- Is based on enhancing strength, ROM and endurance.
- Typically used when impairment does not effect the intact CNS.
- This approach is primarily used for individuals who have had a traumatic injury or illness that has affected the musculoskeletal system.
- Focuses on decreasing deficits in order to improve performance of daily activitiies.
What is The Rehabilitative approach?
- Uses adaptive equipment.
- Emphasizes on making an individual as independant as possible comppenating for limitations by using adaptive equipment.
What is the Neurodevelopmental Approach?
- Is used for individuals who are born with a CNS dysfunction, illness or has had injury to the neural system.
- Based on using sensory input and developmental sequences to promote function.
- Focuses on the nerous system by emphasized eliciting responses in a developmental sequence.
- Evaluation focuses on tone reflex development and automatic reactions.
What is the Neurophysiological Approach?
- Is applied to individuals with brain damange.
- Emphasises on the nervous system and methods for eliciting desired responses.
What is occupational therapy?
- Therapy based on engagement in meaningful activities of daily life such as self-care skills, education, work, or social interaction. especiall to enable or encourage participation despite impairments or limitations in physical or mental functioning.
- Is a client-centered health perfession.
- Is a health profession concerned with promoting health and well-being through occupation. The purpose of OT is primary goal is to give patients meaningful and purposeful lives.
- OT's role is to help people of all ages to improve their quality of life in terms of independence.
- Helping Children and youth from ages 3-21
- Mental Health - Rehabilitation, Disability, and Participation - Productivie Aging -Health and wellness - Work and industry
Stage 1 of Decubitua Ulcers
Redness, edema, superficial epidermis and dermis involved; redness of skin does not resolve within 30 minutes of relief.
Considered partial thickness.
Stage II of Decubitus Ulcers
Redness, edema, blishering, loss of skin layers involving epidermis and possible penetration into but not through the dermis; skin is open and inflamed, extending to the fat layer, with superficial necrosis in advanced stage II lesions.
Considered partial thickness.
Stage III of Decubitus Ulcers.
Full-thickness wound extending down to the muscle; loss extends through dermins to involved subcutaneous tissue.
Stage IV(4) of Decubitus Ulcers.
Deep tissue destruction extends down to and including bone destruction.
Early stage I of Alzheimer Disease.
- Forgetfulness (recent simple events)
- Mild memory deficits
- Difficulty with novel & complex tasks
- Apathy & social withdrawal
Moderate stage II of Alzeimer Disease.
- Moderagte to severe objective memory deficits(may lose ability to count and spell).
- Disorientation to time and place
- Language disturbance
- Personality & behavioral changes(aggressive behavior-frustration & resist help)
- Requires supervision.
Severe stage III of Alzeimer Disease.
- Intellectual functions are commonly untestable.
- Severely limited verbal communication
- Maximal to total Assist with self-care
- Usually do not recognize caregivers
- Incontienent of bowel and bladder.
Final stage IV(4) of Alzeimer Disease.
- Terminal stage
- Lose almost all motor control - memory
- Unaware of environment
- Near or total loss of speech
- Repetitive humming or groaning
- Bedridden - Clonus
- Joint contractures
- Pathological refexes
Stage I of Brunnstrom's Recovery
Predominantly flaccid, no resistance to passive movement.
Stage II of Brunnstrom's Recovery
Spasticity dewvelops and limb synergies or some of their components appear as assicuated reactions minimal voluntary movement is present, gross grasp beginning, minimal finger flexion.
Stage III of Brunnstrom's stages of Recovery.
Spasticity increases, some voluntary control over limb synergy may occur. Contractures may have a tendency to develop; gross grasp and hook grasp possible.
Stage IV(4) of Brunnstrom's Recovery
- Nonsynergistic muscle movement is possible; spasticity begins to decline, gross grasp presnt, small amounts of finger extension & lateral prehension delevelops. Three movements that represent this stage.
- 1) Shoulder flexion to 90 degrees with elbow extended.
- 2) Pronation &supination with elbow flexedat 90 degrees.
- 3) Internal rotation at the shoulder demonstraitting the ability to place affected arm behind back and touch sacral region.
Stage V of the Brunnstrom's Recovery.
- Limb synergies lose their dominance over motor acts; more movement combinations performed with greater ease. Palmar prehension, cylindrical & spherical grasp may occur. Three movements that represent the 5th stage.
- 1) Shoulder flexion greater than 90 degrees with elbow extended.
- 2) 90 degrees of shoulder abduction with elbow extended & forearm pronated.
- 3) Pronation & supination of the forarm with extended elbow.
Stage VI (6) of Brunnstrom's Recovery.
Spasticity disappears except with rapid movement coordination approaches normal, all types of prehension & individual finger motion occur.
Last stage of the Brunnstorm's Recovery.
Motor function is restored.
What does MET stand for?
Metabolic Equivalent (MET) Values for Activity and Exercise.
Met Level 1.5 to 2 - self-care activities- occupational/work activities- Recreational Activities.
SC - Eating, shaving & grooming. - Getting in & out of bed & standing.
Work - Desk work, typing, writing & auto driving.
Recreational - Standing -walking( 1 mph) -flying - motorcycling - playing cards - knitting & sewing.
MET level 2 -3 selfl-care - occupational/work & Recreational activities.
SC - Showering in warm water & walking (2mph).
Work - Ironing, light woodworking, riding lawn mower, auto repair, radio/TV repair, janitorial work, manual typing & bartending.
Recreational - Walking 2mph - level biking 5mph - billiards - bowling - skeet - shuffelboard - powerboat driving - power golf cart driving - canoeing 2.25 mph - horseback riding/walking - playing a musical instrument.
Met level 3 - 4 Self-care / Work/ Recreational activities.
SC - Dressing/Undressing - walking 3mph.
Work - Cleaning windows , making beds, mopping floors, vacuuming, bricklaying, plastering, machine assembly wheelbarrow 220lbs load,trailer truck in traffic, welding(moderate load), pushing light power mower.
Recreational - Walking 3mph, biking 6mph,horseshoe pitching, volleyball(noncompetitive), golf, archery, sailing(small), hourseback riding(trot), badminton.
Met Level 4-5 Self-Care/Work/ Recreational Activities.
SC - Showering in hot water / walking 3.5mph.
Work - Scrubbing floors, hoeing, raking leaves, light carpentry; painting, masonry, hanging wallpaper.
Recreational - Walking 3.5mph, biking 8mph, table tennis , golf (carrying and walking), dancing, badminton, tennis.
MET level 5-6 Self-Care/ Work / Recreational Activities.
SC - Walking 4mph.
Work - Digging in garden, shoveling light earth.
Recreational - Walking 4mph, biking 10mph, canoeing 4mph, horsback riding(posting or trot), stream fishing, ice/roller skating 9mph.
Met level 6-7 Self-Care/ Work/ Recreational Activities.
SC - Walking 5mph
Work - Snow shoveling(10 min) & hand lawn mowing.
Recreational - Walking 5mph, biking 11mph, badminton(completitive), tennis, folk/square dancing, light downhill sking (level 2.5mph), water sking.
What is Line bisection?
Line bisection is a method of determing unilateral neglect.
What does Block assembley do?
Block assembley evaluates constructional apraxia.
What does Overlaping figures do?
Overlaping figures tests figure ground discriminations.
Hypersensitive fingers - what method is introduced for sensory desensitizing?
Textured material-rubbing - tapping & prolonged contact with the client performing the task.
Which individuals benifit from built up handles
Individuals with limited finger flexion & strenth.
What individuals benefit from a Universal cuff?
Individuals that is unable to grasp.
What individuals benefit from extended handles?
Individuals with limited shoulder & elbow ROM.
What is Functional Skills training approach?
Focusing on mastery of a specific task requires the client to repeatedly practice the substeps of a task with a # of cues given for each step gradually decreasing or fading.
What is self-help groups?
This groups support / educate & focus on personal growth around a single life disrupting problem.
What is a support group?
These groups focus on assisting members who are in crisis, until the crisis passes.
What is a Advocacy group?
These groups focus on changing others or changing the system, rather than changing one's self.
What is a Psychotherapy group?
This group focuses on understanding the influence of past experiences on present conflicts.
What is Adjunctive activities?
Active ROM & self ROM techniquies such as cone stacking, pegs,pulleys & mild/doderate & resistive theraband exercises.
What relieves joint stiffness?
- Ice application/ immobilization & splinting
- contrasts baths/ active & passive ROM & Massage.